Penguins. M.L. Anderson, 2009. Contents:. The Antarctic General Penguin Characteristics Threats to Penguins Adele Gentoo Chinstrap Macaroni Rockhopper Emperor. Polar Seas. Along with blistering cold and storms, there are periods of calm and some warmth.
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The little penguins live to 6 years, while the large emperor penguins can live to 50 years. Penguins in captivity live for much longer.
Penguins use their bills to capture prey, such as fish. They have soft, flexible bristles on their tongues and in their throats, which help them to hold prey to keep it from escaping.
Most dives are for food and are less than 50m (164ft). Emperor penguins can dive to 400m (1300ft) and can stay under water for 30 min.
The diet is mainly krill, fish and squid.
The biggest predators are leopard seals, orca whales, sea lions and sharks. On land, predatory birds may eat as much as 40% of the penguin eggs of some species. They also go for small, unprotected chicks.
This map shows the distribution of the Adelie penguin's breeding grounds.
This relatively small species of penguin is only about 11 pounds and was named after the wife of scientist and explorer Dumont D'Urville.
Photo: Kristen Johnson
Pollution Rubbish, such as plastics
Introduced Predators, such as feral dogs, pigs, ferrets and cats in New Zealand, So. America and So. Africa.
Illegal egg collecting and harvesting.