Nanotechnology http nano xerox com nano
Download
1 / 56

Nanotechnology nano.xerox/nano - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 259 Views
  • Updated On :

Nanotechnology http://nano.xerox.com/nano Ralph C. Merkle Xerox PARC www.merkle.com See http://nano.xerox.com/nanotech/talks for an index of talks Sixth Foresight Conference on Molecular Nanotechnology November 12-15 Santa Clara, CA www.foresight.org/Conferences

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Nanotechnology nano.xerox/nano' - Audrey


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Nanotechnology http nano xerox com nano l.jpg

Nanotechnologyhttp://nano.xerox.com/nano

Ralph C. Merkle

Xerox PARC

www.merkle.com


See http nano xerox com nanotech talks for an index of talks l.jpg
Seehttp://nano.xerox.com/nanotech/talksfor an index of talks


Slide3 l.jpg
Sixth Foresight Conference on Molecular NanotechnologyNovember 12-15Santa Clara, CAwww.foresight.org/Conferences


Slide4 l.jpg

Manufactured products are made from atoms.

The properties of those products depend on how those atoms are arranged.


Slide5 l.jpg

Coal

Sand

Dirt, water and air

Diamonds

Computer chips

Grass

It matters

how atoms are arranged


Today s manufacturing methods move atoms in great thundering statistical herds l.jpg
Today’s manufacturing methods move atoms in great thundering statistical herds

  • Casting

  • Grinding

  • Welding

  • Sintering

  • Lithography


Slide7 l.jpg

The principles of physics, as far as I can see, do not speak against the possibility of maneuvering things atom by atom. It is not anattempt to violate any laws; it is something, in principle, that can be done; but in practice, it has not been done because we are toobig. Richard Feynman, 1959

http://nano.xerox.com/nanotech/feynman.html


Slide8 l.jpg

Most interesting structures that are at least substantial local minima on a potential energy surface can probably be made one way or another. Richard Smalley Nobel Laureate in Chemistry, 1996


Nanotechnology a k a molecular manufacturing l.jpg
Nanotechnology local minima on a potential energy surface can probably be made one way or another. (a.k.a. molecular manufacturing)

  • Fabricate most structures that are specified with molecular detail and which are consistent with physical law

  • Get essentially every atom in the right place

  • Inexpensive manufacturing costs (~10-50 cents/kilogram)

http://nano.xerox.com/nano


Terminological caution l.jpg
Terminological caution local minima on a potential energy surface can probably be made one way or another.

The word “nanotechnology” has become very popular. It can be used indiscriminately to refer to almost any research area where some dimension is less than a micron (1,000 nanometers) in size.

Example: sub-micron lithography


Slide11 l.jpg

Possible arrangements of atoms local minima on a potential energy surface can probably be made one way or another.

What we can make today

(not to scale)

.


Slide12 l.jpg

The goal of molecular nanotechnology: local minima on a potential energy surface can probably be made one way or another.

a healthy bite.

.


Slide13 l.jpg

Molecular local minima on a potential energy surface can probably be made one way or another.

Manufacturing

We don’t have

molecular manufacturing today.

We must develop fundamentally new capabilities.

.

What we can make today

(not to scale)


Slide14 l.jpg

“... the innovator has for enemies all those who have done well under the old conditions, and lukewarm defenders in those who may do well under the new. This coolness arises ... from the incredulity of men, who do not readily believe in new things until they have had a long experience of them.”

from The Prince, by Niccolo Machiavelli


We ll start a major project to develop nanotechnology when we answer yes to three questions l.jpg
We’ll start a major project to develop nanotechnology when we answer “yes” to three questions:

  • Is it feasible?

  • Is it valuable?

  • Can we do things today to speed it’s development?


Slide16 l.jpg

Products we answer “yes” to three questions:

Products

Core molecular

manufacturing

capabilities

Products

Products

Products

Products

Products

Products

Products

Products

Products

Products

Products

Today

Products

Products

Products

Products

Products

Overview of the development of molecular nanotechnology

Products

Products

Products

Products

Products

Products

Products

Products


Two more fundamental ideas l.jpg
Two more fundamental ideas we answer “yes” to three questions:

  • Self replication (for low cost)

  • Programmable positional control (to make molecular parts go where we want them to go)


Slide18 l.jpg

Von Neumann architecture for a self replicating system we answer “yes” to three questions:

Universal

Computer

Universal

Constructor

http://nano.xerox.com/nanotech/vonNeumann.html


Slide19 l.jpg

Drexler’s architecture for an assembler we answer “yes” to three questions:

Molecular

computer

Molecular

constructor

Positional device

Tip chemistry


Illustration of an assembler l.jpg
Illustration of an assembler we answer “yes” to three questions:

http://www.foresight.org/UTF/Unbound_LBW/chapt_6.html


Slide21 l.jpg

Advanced Automation for Space Missions we answer “yes” to three questions:

Proceedings of the 1980 NASA/ASEE Summer Study

The theoretical concept of machine duplication is well developed. There are several alternative strategies by which machine self-replication can be carried out in a practical engineering setting.

http://nano.xerox.com/nanotech/selfRepNASA.html


A c program that prints out an exact copy of itself l.jpg

A C program that prints out an exact copy of itself we answer “yes” to three questions:

main(){char q=34, n=10,*a="main() {char q=34,n=10,*a=%c%s%c; printf(a,q,a,q,n);}%c";printf(a,q,a,q,n);}

For more information, see the Recursion Theorem:

http://nano.xerox.com/nanotech/selfRep.html


Slide23 l.jpg

Complexity of self replicating systems we answer “yes” to three questions:

(bits)

  • C program 808

  • Von Neumann's universal constructor 500,000

  • Internet worm (Robert Morris, Jr., 1988) 500,000

  • Mycoplasma capricolum 1,600,000

  • E. Coli 9,278,442

  • Drexler's assembler 100,000,000

  • Human 6,400,000,000

  • NASA Lunar

    • Manufacturing Facility over 100,000,000,000

http://nano.xerox.com/nanotech/selfRep.html


How cheap l.jpg
How cheap? we answer “yes” to three questions:

  • Potatoes, lumber, wheat and other agricultural products are examples of products made using a self replicating manufacturing base. Costs of roughly a dollar per pound are common.

  • Molecular manufacturing will make almost any product for a dollar per pound or less, independent of complexity. (Design costs, licensing costs, etc. not included)


How strong l.jpg
How strong? we answer “yes” to three questions:

  • Diamond has a strength-to-weight ratio over 50 times that of steel or aluminium alloy

  • Structural (load bearing) mass can be reduced by about this factor

  • When combined with reduced cost, this will have a major impact on aerospace applications


How long l.jpg
How long? we answer “yes” to three questions:

  • The scientifically correct answer is I don’t know

  • Trends in computer hardware suggest early in the next century — perhaps in the 2010 to 2020 time frame

  • Of course, how long it takes depends on what we do


Developmental pathways l.jpg
Developmental pathways we answer “yes” to three questions:

  • Scanning probe microscopy

  • Self assembly

  • Hybrid approaches


Slide28 l.jpg

Moving molecules with an SPM we answer “yes” to three questions:

(Gimzewski et al.)

http://www.zurich.ibm.com/News/Molecule/


Self assembled dna octahedron seeman l.jpg
Self assembled DNA octahedron we answer “yes” to three questions:(Seeman)

http://seemanlab4.chem.nyu.edu/nano-oct.html


Dna on an spm tip lee et al l.jpg
DNA on an SPM tip we answer “yes” to three questions:(Lee et al.)

http://stm2.nrl.navy.mil/1994scie/1994scie.html


Buckytubes tough well defined l.jpg
Buckytubes we answer “yes” to three questions:(Tough, well defined)


Bucky tube glued to spm tip dai et al l.jpg
Bucky tube glued to SPM tip we answer “yes” to three questions:(Dai et al.)

http://cnst.rice.edu/TIPS_rev.htm


Building the tools to build the tools l.jpg
Building the tools to build the tools we answer “yes” to three questions:

  • Direct manufacture of a diamondoid assembler using existing techniques appears difficult (stronger statements have been made).

  • We should be able to build intermediate systems able to build better systems able to build diamondoid assemblers.


Diamond physical properties l.jpg
Diamond Physical Properties we answer “yes” to three questions:

PropertyDiamond’s valueComments

Chemical reactivity Extremely low

Hardness (kg/mm2) 9000 CBN: 4500 SiC: 4000

Thermal conductivity (W/cm-K) 20 Ag: 4.3 Cu: 4.0

Tensile strength (pascals) 3.5 x 109 (natural) 1011 (theoretical)

Compressive strength (pascals) 1011 (natural) 5 x 1011 (theoretical)

Band gap (ev) 5.5 Si: 1.1 GaAs: 1.4

Resistivity (W-cm) 1016 (natural)

Density (gm/cm3) 3.51

Thermal Expansion Coeff (K-1) 0.8 x 10-6 SiO2: 0.5 x 10-6

Refractive index 2.41 @ 590 nm Glass: 1.4 - 1.8

Coeff. of Friction 0.05 (dry) Teflon: 0.05

Source: Crystallume


A hydrocarbon bearing l.jpg
A hydrocarbon bearing we answer “yes” to three questions:

http://nano.xerox.com/nanotech/bearingProof.html


A planetary gear l.jpg
A planetary gear we answer “yes” to three questions:

http://nano.xerox.com/nanotech/gearAndCasing.html


A proposal for a molecular positional device l.jpg
A proposal for a we answer “yes” to three questions:molecular positional device


Molecular tools l.jpg
Molecular tools we answer “yes” to three questions:

  • Today, we make things at the molecular scale by stirring together molecular parts and cleverly arranging things so they spontaneously go somewhere useful.

  • In the future, we’ll have molecular “hands” that will let us put molecular parts exactly where we want them, vastly increasing the range of molecular structures that we can build.


Synthesis of diamond today diamond cvd l.jpg
Synthesis of diamond today: we answer “yes” to three questions:diamond CVD

  • Carbon: methane (ethane, acetylene...)

  • Hydrogen: H2

  • Add energy, producing CH3, H, etc.

  • Growth of a diamond film.

The right chemistry, but little control over the site of reactions or exactly what is synthesized.


Slide40 l.jpg

A hydrogen abstraction tool we answer “yes” to three questions:

http://nano.xerox.com/nanotech/Habs/Habs.html


Some other molecular tools l.jpg
Some other molecular tools we answer “yes” to three questions:


A synthetic strategy for the synthesis of diamondoid structures l.jpg
A synthetic strategy we answer “yes” to three questions: for the synthesis of diamondoid structures

  • Positional control (6 degrees of freedom)

  • Highly reactive compounds (radicals, carbenes, etc)

  • Inert environment (vacuum, noble gas) to eliminate side reactions


The impact of molecular manufacturing depends on what s being manufactured l.jpg
The impact of molecular manufacturing we answer “yes” to three questions:depends on what’s being manufactured

  • Computers

  • Space Exploration

  • Medicine

  • Military

  • Energy, Transportation, etc.


How powerful l.jpg
How powerful? we answer “yes” to three questions:

  • In the future we’ll pack more computing power into a sugar cube than the sum total of all the computer power that exists in the world today

  • We’ll be able to store more than 1021 bits in the same volume

  • Or more than a billion Pentiums operating in parallel


Space l.jpg
Space we answer “yes” to three questions:

  • Launch vehicle structural mass will be reduced by about a factor of 50

  • Cost per pound for that structural mass will be under a dollar

  • Which will reduce the cost to low earth orbit by a factor of better than 1,000

    http://science.nas.nasa.gov/Groups/Nanotechnology/publications/1997/applications/


It costs less to launch less l.jpg
It costs less to launch less we answer “yes” to three questions:

  • Light weight computers and sensors will reduce total payload mass for the same functionality

  • Recycling of waste will reduce payload mass, particularly for long flights and permanent facilities (space stations, colonies)


Slide47 l.jpg

Disease and illness are caused largely by damage at the molecular and cellular level

Today’s surgical tools are huge and imprecise in comparison

http://nano.xerox.com/nanotech/ nanotechAndMedicine.html


Slide48 l.jpg

In the future, we will have fleets of surgical tools that are molecular both in size and precision.

We will also have computers that are much smaller than a single cell with which to guide these tools.


A revolution in medicine l.jpg
A revolution in medicine are molecular both in size and precision.

  • Today, loss of cell function results in cellular deterioration:

    function must be preserved

  • With future cell repair systems, passive structures can be repaired. Cell function can be restored provided cell structure can be inferred:

    structure must be preserved


Slide50 l.jpg

Cryonics are molecular both in size and precision.

37º C

37º C

Freeze

Revive

-196º C (77 Kelvins)

Temperature

Time

(~ 50 to 150 years)


Clinical trials to evaluate cryonics l.jpg
Clinical trials are molecular both in size and precision.to evaluate cryonics

  • Select N subjects

  • Freeze them

  • Wait 100 years

  • See if the medical technology of 2100 can indeed revive them

    But what do we tell those who don’t expect to live long enough to see the results?


Today s choice would you rather join l.jpg
Today’s choice: are molecular both in size and precision.would you rather join

The control group

(no action required)?

Or the experimental group

(contact Alcor: www.alcor.org)?


Slide53 l.jpg

Military applications of molecular manufacturing have even greater potential than nuclear weapons to radically change the balance of power.

Admiral David E. Jeremiah, USN (Ret)

Former Vice Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff

November 9, 1995

http://nano.xerox.com/nanotech/nano4/jeremiahPaper.html


Nanotechnology and energy l.jpg
Nanotechnology and energy greater potential than nuclear weapons to radically change the balance of power.

  • The sunshine reaching the earth has almost 40,000 times more power than total world usage.

  • Molecular manufacturing will produce efficient, rugged solar cells and batteries at low cost.

  • Power costs will drop dramatically


Nanotechnology and the environment l.jpg
Nanotechnology and the environment greater potential than nuclear weapons to radically change the balance of power.

  • Manufacturing plants pollute because they use crude and imprecise methods.

  • Molecular manufacturing is precise — it will produce only what it has been designed to produce.

  • An abundant source of carbon is the excess CO2 in the air


Slide56 l.jpg

The best way greater potential than nuclear weapons to radically change the balance of power.

to predict the future

is to invent it.

Alan Kay