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Computer Confluence 7/e © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 6 Graphics, Digital Media, and Multimedia © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 6 Objectives

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computer confluence 7 e

Computer Confluence 7/e

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

computer confluence 7 e2

Computer Confluence 7/e

Chapter 6

Graphics, Digital Media, and Multimedia

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

computer confluence 7 e chapter 6 objectives

Computer Confluence 7/eChapter 6Objectives

Compare and contrast several types of computer graphics programs used by artists, photographers, designers, and others

Explain how computers are changing the way professionals and amateurs work with video, animation, audio, and music

Describe several ways that computers are used to create multimedia materials in the arts, entertainment, education, and business

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

computer confluence 7 e chapter 1 objectives continued

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 1Objectives (continued)

Explain the relationship between hypermedia and multimedia, describing applications of each

Describe several present and future applications for multimedia technology

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

computer confluence 7 e chapter 1 tim berners lee weaves the web for everybody

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 1 Tim Berners-Lee Weaves the Web for Everybody

Born in London in 1955

Wanted to create an open-ended distributed hypertext system with no boundaries, so scientists everywhere could link their work together

Invented the World Wide Web and

gave it to all

Now works at MIT

Heads the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

computer confluence 7 e chapter 6 focus on computer graphics

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 6Focus on Computer Graphics

Painting: Bitmapped Graphics

Painting software:

Paints pixels on the screen with a

pointing device

Pointer movements are translated

into lines and patterns on the screen

Stores an image at 300

dots per inch or higher

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

computer confluence 7 e chapter 6 focus on computer graphics7

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 6Focus on Computer Graphics

Pixels: tiny dots of white, black, or color that make up images on the screen

The palette of tools mimics real-world painting tools

Also contains other tools that are unique to computers

Bitmapped graphics (or raster graphics): pictures that show how the pixels are mapped on the screen

Color depth: the number of bits devoted to each pixel

Resolution: the density of the pixels

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

computer confluence 7 e chapter 6 focus on computer graphics8

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 6Focus on Computer Graphics

Image Processing: Photographic Editing by Computer

Allows the user to manipulate photographs and other high-resolution images with tools such as Adobe Photoshop

Far more powerful than traditional photo-retouching techniques

Can distort and combine photos as demonstrated in the tabloids

Can create fabricated images that show no evidence of tampering

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

computer confluence 7 e chapter 6 focus on computer graphics9

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 6Focus on Computer Graphics

Digital photo management software programs such as Apple iPhoto and Microsoft PictureIt! simplify and automate common tasks associated with capturing, organizing, editing, and sharing digital images

Combine it with other objects

Make a statement

Take an image

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

computer confluence 7 e chapter 6 focus on computer graphics10

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 6Focus on Computer Graphics

Drawing: Object-Oriented Graphics

Drawing software stores a picture as a collection of lines and shapes (called object-orientedorvector graphics)

Memory demands on storage are not as high as for bit-mapped images

Many drawing tools–line, shape, and text tools–are similar to painting tools in bitmapped programs

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

computer confluence 7 e chapter 6 focus on computer graphics11

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 6Focus on Computer Graphics

PostScript: a standard page-description language for describing text fonts, illustrations, and other elements of the printed page

Used by professional drawing programs such as Adobe Illustrator and Macromedia Freehand

Built into many laser printers and other high-end output devices so those devices can understand and follow PostScript instructions

PostScript-based drawing software constructs a PostScript program as the user draws

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

computer confluence 7 e chapter 6 focus on computer graphics12

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 6Focus on Computer Graphics

Bit-mapped painting (pixels) gives you these advantages:

More control over textures, shading and fine detail

Appropriate for screen displays, simulating natural paint media and embellishing photographs

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

computer confluence 7 e chapter 6 focus on computer graphics13

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 6Focus on Computer Graphics

Object-oriented drawing gives you these advantages:

Better for creating printed graphs, charts, and illustrations

Lines are cleaner and shapes are smoother

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

computer confluence 7 e chapter 6 focus on computer graphics14

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 6Focus on Computer Graphics

Some integrated programs contain both drawing and painting modules

Allows you to choose the right tool for each job

Some programs merge features of both in a single application

Blurring the distinction between types

Offers new possibilities for amateur and professional illustrators

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

computer confluence 7 e chapter 6 focus on computer graphics15

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 6 Focus on Computer Graphics

Rules of Thumb: Creating Smart Art

Reprogram yourself . . . relax

Choose the right tool for the job

Borrow from the best

Don’t borrow without permission

Protect your own work

U.S. Copyright Office Web Site:http://lcweb.loc.gov/copyright/

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

computer confluence 7 e chapter 6 focus on computer graphics16

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 6 Focus on Computer Graphics

3-D Modeling Software

Used to create three-dimensional objects with tools similar to those in drawing software

Goal for some applications: to create an animated presentation on a computer screen or videotape

Flexible: can create a 3-D model, rotate it, view it from different angles

Can “walk-through” a 3-D environment that exists only in the computer’s memory

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

computer confluence 7 e chapter 6 focus on computer graphics17

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 6 Focus on Computer Graphics

Images in wireframe

view; those on the right are fully rendered to add surface textures

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

computer confluence 7 e chapter 6 focus on computer graphics18

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 6 Focus on Computer Graphics

CAD/CAM: Turning Pictures into Products

Computer Aided Design(CAD) software:

Allows engineers, designers, and architects to create

designs on screen for products ranging from computer

chips to public buildings

Can test product prototypes

Cheaper, faster, and more accurate than traditional

design-by-hand techniques

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

computer confluence 7 e chapter 6 focus on computer graphics19

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 6 Focus on Computer Graphics

Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) is the process by which data related to the product design are fed into a program that controls the manufacturing of parts

Computer-Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) refers to the combination of CAD/CAM and is a major step toward a fully automated factory

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

computer confluence 7 e chapter 6 focus on computer graphics20

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 6 Focus on Computer Graphics

Presentation Graphics: Bringing Lectures to Life

Automates the creation of visual aids for lectures, training sessions, sales demonstrations, and other presentations

Create slide shows directly on computer monitors or LCD projectors, including still images, animation, and video clips

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

computer confluence 7 e chapter 6 focus on computer graphics21

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 6 Focus on Computer Graphics

You start by creating an outline of the main points of your talk, arranging headings and points in the appropriate order

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

computer confluence 7 e chapter 6 focus on computer graphics22

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 6 Focus on Computer Graphics

You can design the background, borders, and text format yourself, or select a professionally designed template from the collection that comes with PowerPoint

The program places your text on this template for each slide in the presentation

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

computer confluence 7 e chapter 6 focus on computer graphics23

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 6 Focus on Computer Graphics

You can print overhead transparencies or have slides made, but since there is a big screen computer system in the lecture room, you opt to create an interactive slideshow with animated visual transitions between slides

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

computer confluence 7 e chapter 6 focus on computer graphics24

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 6 Focus on Computer Graphics

Microsoft Producer lets you combine a presentation with a video of the speaker and a table of contents

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

computer confluence 7 e chapter 6 rules of thumb making powerful presentations

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 6Rules of Thumb: Making Powerful Presentations

  • Remember your goal
  • Remember your audience
  • Outline your ideas
  • Be stingy with words
  • Keep it simple
  • Use a consistent design
  • Be smart with art
  • Keep each slide focused
  • Tell them what you’re going to tell them, then tell them, then tell them what you told them

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

computer confluence 7 e chapter 6 dynamic media beyond the printed page

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 6Dynamic Media: Beyond the Printed Page

We’re on the threshold of a moment in cinematic history that is unparalleled. Anything you can imagine can be done. If you can draw it, if you can describe it, we can do it. It’s just a matter of cost.

—James Cameron, filmmaker

Modern media contains dynamic information, which is information that changes over time or in response to user input

Animation

Desktop Video

Audio

Hypertext and hypermedia

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 6 Dynamic Media: Beyond the Printed Page

Animation: Graphics in Time

Each frame of computer-based

animation is a computer-drawn picture;

the computer displays these

frames in rapid succession

Tweening: Instead of drawing each frame

by hand, the animator can create key frames

and objects and use software to help fill

in the gaps

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 6 Dynamic Media: Beyond the Printed Page

Desktop Video: Computers, Film, and TV

Analog and Digital Video

A video digitizer can convert analog video signals from a television broadcast or videotape into digital data

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 6 Dynamic Media: Beyond the Printed Page

Many video digitizers can import signals from televisions, videotapes, video cameras, and other sources

Signals displayed on the computer’s screen in real time—at the same time they’re created or imported

Digital video cameras capture footage in digital form

Digital video can be copied, edited, stored, and played back without any loss of quality

Digital video will soon replace analog video for most applications

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 6 Dynamic Media: Beyond the Printed Page

Video Production Goes Digital

Today most video editing is done using nonlinear editingtechnology

Video editing software, such as Adobe Premiere, makes it easy to eliminate extraneous footage, combine clips from multiple takes, splice together scenes, create specific effects and other activities

Morphs are video clips in which one image metamorphoses into another

Data compression software and hardware are used to squeeze data out of movies so that they can be stored in smaller spaces

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 6 Dynamic Media: Beyond the Printed Page

Many Web sites deliver streaming video content to viewers with fast broadband Internet connections

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 6 Dynamic Media: Beyond the Printed Page

The Synthetic Musician: Computers and Audio

Audio digitizer – captures sound and stores it as a data file

Synthesizer – an electronic instrument that

synthesizes sounds using mathematical

formulas

MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital

Interface) – standard interface that allows

electronic instruments and computers to

communicate with each other

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 6 Dynamic Media: Beyond the Printed Page

  • Music is digitized on audio CDs at a high sampling rate and bit depth—high enough that it’s hard to tell the difference between the original analog sound and the final digital recording

The iTunes Music Store helps Mac and Windows users purchase music by their favorite artists in protected digital format

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 6 Dynamic Media: Beyond the Printed Page

Rule of Thumb: Digital Audio Dos and Don’ts

Don’t steal

Understand streaming and downloading

Know your file formats

Don’t over-compress

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 6 Dynamic Media: Beyond the Printed Page

Popular Digital Audio Formats

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 6 Dynamic Media: Beyond the Printed Page

Samplers, Synthesizers, and Sequencers: Digital Audio and MIDI

Multimedia computers can control a variety of electronic musical instruments and sound sources using MIDI

MIDI commands can be interpreted by a variety of:

Music synthesizers

Samplers

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 6 Dynamic Media: Beyond the Printed Page

A piano-style keyboard sends MIDI signals to the computer

Computer interprets the MIDI commands using sequencing software

Sequencing software turns a computer into a musical composing, recording, and editing machine

Electronica—music designed from the ground up with digital technology

Some of the most interesting sequenced music

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 6 Dynamic Media: Beyond the Printed Page

  • A growing number of musicians depend on sequencers to play along with live musicians in performances
    • Abelon’s Live is a sequencer with special features for bridging the communication gap between human players and computer in concert

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 6 Dynamic Media: Beyond the Printed Page

Hypertext and Hypermedia

Hypertext refers to information linked in non-sequential ways

Hypermedia combines text, numbers, graphics, animation, sound effects, music, and other media in hyperlinked documents

Useful for on-line help files

Lets the user jump between documents all over the Internet

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 6 Dynamic Media: Beyond the Printed Page

Hypermedia documents can be disorienting and leave readers wondering what they’ve missed

Documents don’t always have the links readers want

Authors can’t build every possible connection into documents

Some readers get frustrated because they can’t easily get “here” from “there”

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 6 Dynamic Media: Beyond the Printed Page

Documents sometimes contain “lost” links,

Especially on the Web, where even a popular page can disappear

Documents don’t encourage scribbled margin notes, highlighting, or turned page corners for marking key passages

Hardware can be hard on humans

The art of hypermedia is still in its infancy

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

computer confluence 7 e chapter 6 interactive multimedia eye ear hand and mind

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 6Interactive Multimedia: Eye, Ear, Hand, and Mind

Interactive Multimedia: What Is It?

A combination of text, graphics,

animation, video, music, voice,

and sound effects that allows the

user to take an active part in the

experience

Requirements: high-quality color

monitors, fast processors, large memory,

CD-ROM drives, speakers, and sound cards

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 6 Interactive Multimedia: Eye, Ear, Hand, and Mind

Multimedia Authoring: Making Mixed Media

Uses authoring programs such as

HyperStudio and MetaCard

Binds source documents together to

communicate with users in an aesthetically

pleasing way

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 6 Interactive Multimedia: Eye, Ear, Hand, and Mind

Multimedia authoring involves programming objects on the screen to react, or behave, in particular ways under particular circumstances

Macromedia Director MX, one of the most popular of such packages, includes pre-written behaviors that can be attached to on-screen buttons, images, and other objects

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 6 Interactive Multimedia: Eye, Ear, Hand, and Mind

Rules of Thumb:

Making Interactive Multimedia Work

Be consistent in visual appearance

Use graphical metaphors to guide viewers

Keep the screen clean and uncluttered

Include multimedia elements to enliven the presentation

Focus on the message

Give the user control

Test your presentation with those unfamiliar with the subject

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 6 Interactive Multimedia: Eye, Ear, Hand, and Mind

Inventing the Future: Shared Virtual Spaces

Virtual reality combines virtual worlds with networking

Places multiple participants in a virtual space

People see representations of each other, sometimes called avatars

Most avatars today are cartoonish, but they convey a sense of presence and emotion

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 6 Interactive Multimedia: Eye, Ear, Hand, and Mind

Tele-immersion:

Uses multiple cameras and high-speed networks to create a videoconferencing environment in which multiple remote users can interact with each other and with computer-generated objects

Combines the display and interaction techniques of virtual reality with new vision technologies that allow participants to move around in shared virtual spaces, all the while maintaining their unique points of view

Augmented reality (AR):

The use of computer displays that add virtual information to a person’s sensory perceptions

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

computer confluence 7 e chapter 6 lesson summary

Computer Confluence 7/eChapter 6Lesson Summary

Computer graphics today encompass more than quantitative charts and graphs generated by spreadsheets

Computers today aren’t limited to working with static images; they’re widely used to create and edit documents in media that change over time or in response to user interaction

The interactive nature of the personal computer makes it possible to create nonlinear documents that enable users to take individual paths through information

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

computer confluence 7 e chapter 6 lesson summary continued

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 6Lesson Summary (continued)

Today we can create or explore hypermedia documents—interactive documents that mix text, graphics, sounds, and moving images with onscreen navigation buttons—on disk and on the World Wide Web

Multimedia computer systems make a new kind of software possible—software that uses text, graphics, animation, video, music, voice, and sound effects to communicate

Regardless of the hardware, interactive multimedia software enables the user to control the presentation rather than just watch or listen passively

© 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.