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Phytochemicals- Vitamins of the Future? Created by: Tricia Fleming, University of Kansas Dietetic Intern Tammy Beason, MS, RD, Nutrition Education Specialist, Family Nutrition Education Program December 2001 Let’s see what you know about phytochemicals!!!

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phytochemicals vitamins of the future

Phytochemicals- Vitamins of the Future?

Created by:

Tricia Fleming, University of Kansas Dietetic Intern

Tammy Beason, MS, RD, Nutrition Education Specialist, Family Nutrition Education Program

December 2001

let s see what you know about phytochemicals
Let’s see what you know about phytochemicals!!!
  • Take phytochemical quiz- we will take the same one at the end and see if you learned anything!
  • Take a few minutes and jot down some foods you think might contain phytochemicals.
the american diet
The American Diet
  • Americans do not eat enough fruits and vegetables. Surprise- Surprise!
  • Eat 5 a day campaign
  • Do we need yet another reason to eat fruits and vegetables?
what are phytochemicals
What are Phytochemicals?
  • Phyto- greek word for plants
  • Substances in plants that may help prevent diseases like cancer and heart disease.
  • So far, scientists know of 3,000 different phytochemicals with possible health benefits.
phytochemical terminology
Phytochemical Terminology

Definitions you may need to know:

  • Free radicals- are byproducts of metabolism. They are capable of causing cells to lose their structure, function and eventually destroying them. (Left over garbage from cells)
  • Connected with the development of 50 diseases including heart disease and cancer.
phytochemical terminology6
Phytochemical Terminology

What are antioxidants?

  • Capable of stabilizing or deactivating free radicals before they attack cells.
  • Chemoprevention- stop or reverse the development of cancer.
what is cancer
What is Cancer?
  • Uncontrolled Cell Division
  • Cells multiply to form a tumor
  • Leads to a malignant tumor attacking multiple organs
what is heart disease
What is Heart Disease?
  • Heart Disease is a general term for a list of diseases affecting the heart.
  • Atherosclerosis and hypertension play a major role.
  • Is the number 1 killer in the United States.
so what s so exciting about phytochemicals
So what’s so exciting about Phytochemicals?
  • Prevent cells from being cancerous
  • Prevents heart disease.
  • Lower LDL cholesterol.
  • Prevent blood clotting.
  • Keep blood pressure down.
  • Used in cancer treatment
so what s so exciting about phytochemicals10
So what’s so exciting about Phytochemicals?
  • Researchers still don’t know a lot about phytochemicals.
  • They do know that people who eat large quantities of fruits and veggies have reduced cancer risks. They are doing something right!!!!
where can you find phytochemicals
Where can you find phytochemicals?
  • Highest anticancer activity can be found in garlic, soybeans, cabbage, ginger, licorice root
  • Additional foods found to have cancer protective activity: onions, flax, citrus, tumeric, tomatoes, sweet peppers and brown rice.
the phytochemical family
The Phytochemical Family
  • organosulfur and glucosinolates
    • they may help prevent cancer.
the phytochemical family13
The Phytochemical Family
  • Lycopene
    • Strong free radical destroyer
    • Found in Tomatoes, watermelon
the phytochemical family14
The Phytochemical Family
  • Allium compounds
    • Onions, Garlic, Scallions, Chives
    • Prevent cells from being damaged by free radicals.
the phytochemical family15
The Phytochemical Family
  • Ellagic Acid
    • Strawberries, Cranberries, Nuts, Blackberries, Raspberries
    • blood less likely to clot
    • beneficial in preventing heart disease.
the phytochemical family16
The Phytochemical Family
  • Monoterpenes
    • Citrus Fruit
    • May help to prevent cancer.
the phytochemical family17
The Phytochemical Family
  • Isoflavones and saponins.
    • Soybeans
    • Have a wide range of benefits
    • lowers risk for heart disease.
phytochemicals in the news
Phytochemicals in the News!
  • Soy has been nicknamed the Miracle Bean
  • Chinese have regular consumption of soybeans and tofu.
  • They have 1/2 the risk of cancer than Americans.
soy it s whats for dinner
Soy- It’s Whats for Dinner!
  • May also help prevent osteoporosis, and reduce the symptoms of menopause.
  • Exact component that is responsible for the positive effect is still unknown.
what are some soy foods
What are some Soy Foods?
  • Soy flours- simplest form. Can be used in baked goods.
  • Soy isolates - used to make dairy like products. Usually used to add texture to meat products.
  • Tofu- rich in minerals and is an excellent source of protein.
what are some soy foods21
What are some Soy foods?
  • Soymilk- consumed by dairy sensitive individuals and strict vegetarians.
  • Textured soy protein- used as a meat enhancer, extender and substitute.
  • Tempeh- made of whole cooked soybeans.
  • Soy recipe: Tofu Pumpkin Cheesecake
phytochemicals in the news22
Phytochemicals in the News
  • flavonoids.
    • Green tea
    • Shut off the formation of cancer cells,
    • Turn up the body’s defense system and suppress cancer advancement.
phytochemicals in the news23
Phytochemicals in the News
  • Green Tea has also been indicated to lower LDL cholesterol and increase HDL in large quantities.
  • More Research needs to be performed!
  • Tea is not a substitute for the benefits of fruits and vegetables.
pigments are more than just a color
Pigments are more than just a color!
  • Many of the pigments found in fruits and vegetables are phytochemicals.
the color wheel
The Color Wheel

Eat your colors!

  • Red - Lycopene, phytoene, phytofluene, vitamin E-
  • Tomatoes, tomato sauce, vegetable juice, tomato soup, watermelon.
  • Green- Glucosinolates, Isothiocyanates, Indole-3 Carbinol, and Folic Acid
  • Broccoli, Brussel Sprouts, Bok Choy, Cauliflower , Cabbage
the color wheel26
The Color Wheel
  • Green/Yellow- Lutein, Zeaxanthin
  • Spinach, Avocado, Kale , Green Beans, Green Peppers, Kiwi, Collard Greens, Mustard Greens
  • Orange- Alpha and Beta Carotene
  • Carrots Pumpkins, Squash, Mangos, Apricots, Cantaloupe
the color wheel27
The Color Wheel!
  • Orange/Yellow- Vitamin C Flavonoids
  • Oranges, Orange Juice, Tangerines, Peaches, lemons, Limes, Pineapple.
  • Red-Purple Anthocyanins, Ellagic Acid, Flavonoids,
  • Grapes and grape juice, cherries, red wine, strawberries, raisins
the color wheel28
The Color Wheel!
  • White/ Green - Allyl Sulfides
  • Garlic, Onion, and Chives
phytochemical supplements
Phytochemical Supplements

There are some available, but remember: They will only provide selected components in a concentrated form but not all of the compounds that occur naturally in the foods.

is there a negative side
Is there a negative side?
  • Studies on animals containing large amounts of phytochemicals have had negative results.
  • Optimal levels of phytochemicals have yet to be determined.
how can you get enough phytochemicals
How can you get enough Phytochemicals?
  • There are things that you can do!
  • Eating a variety of vegetables and fruits.
  • Eat more grains.
  • Don’t forget herbs and spices,
  • Decrease portion size of meats.
how can you increase your phytochemical intake
How can you increase your phytochemical intake?
  • Keep fruits and vegetables stocked and in sight.
  • Reach for juice instead of coffee or soda.
  • Add chopped fruit to cereal, yogurt, pancakes, muffins, or even a milkshake.
  • Snack on fresh chopped carrots, celery, broccoli, cauliflower and peppers.
how can you eat more phytochemicals
How can you eat more phytochemicals?
  • Add fresh greens, carrots, celery parsley, tomatoes, and / or beans to your soups.
  • Store dried fruit (apricots, dates, raisins, and more) for a quick snack at home or work.
  • Explore new foods and new recipes!
what s next for phytochemicals
What’s next for Phytochemicals?
  • Research is KEY!
  • Research needs to answer these questions:
  • What types of phytochemicals provide health benefits? - some research exists but need more definite results.
  • Establish the safety of use. - how much is too much?
what s next for phytochemicals35
What’s next for phytochemicals?
  • Determine an effective dosage that protects against disease?
  • Important to remember: Nothing takes the place of a healthy diet and physical exercise. -