Asking Research Questions - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Antony
slide1 n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Asking Research Questions PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Asking Research Questions

play fullscreen
1 / 17
Download Presentation
Asking Research Questions
326 Views
Download Presentation

Asking Research Questions

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

    1. Asking Research Questions Christine A. Jesser, ScD Office of Research Seton Family of Hospitals March 2, 2009

    3. Overall Process Coming up with the right question: Frame a Question ? Information Gathering ? Re-frame Question

    4. Move from BIG to small The typical process of defining the question is to move from big questions to small answerable questions. Big questions are usually answered by answering a series of smaller questions that relate to one another over time.

    5. The Process of Building up Research Questions First Rule: Start With a Simple Question A simple question has one stem and one topic. Start with a simple question that means a question with one stem and one topic. E.g., In this question Who drove the train? The stem is who and the topic is drove the train

    6. Second Rule: Use Action Questions Some questions do not require action. Any question that can be answered by a yes or no is not action oriented. These questions are stoppers. The question has been answered, excluding the need to do any research. Questions that begin with should or could are stoppers; they elicit opinions, not facts. One important thing about research questions is that they must be: action-oriented demanding some activity on your part

    9. Look at each questions in relation to its basic components, the topic and the question. In the first example the topic is drivers over speed, and the question is do. Do doesnt imply much action. Change do to what, and the question becomes, What divers over speed? If what were substituted for do in the second question, the same change would take place: What drivers respond to traffic lights in the same way?" The answers can no longer be simple yes or no opinions; some form of action is needed to find an answer. Look at each questions in relation to its basic components, the topic and the question. In the first example the topic is drivers over speed, and the question is do. Do doesnt imply much action. Change do to what, and the question becomes, What divers over speed? If what were substituted for do in the second question, the same change would take place: What drivers respond to traffic lights in the same way?" The answers can no longer be simple yes or no opinions; some form of action is needed to find an answer.

    10. Use Active Verbs The first step in phrasing a research question is to use an active stem changing the question from an opinion question to an active question Replace words such as should or do with words such as what or why

    11. Levels of Research Questions When analyzing the level of the question, there are a couple of indicators to watch for that will help you decide if you are at the right level Finding the appropriate level for your questions determines your subsequent course of action Research questions fall into three levels

    12. First Level Research Questions First level - little or no prior knowledge of the topic The stem question is always what is or what are and the topic has a single concept Asked in such a way that they lead to exploration and result in a complete description of the topic If your topic has never been studied before, you begin at the first level. First-level questions are: exploratory in nature examine new areas of insufficient knowledge provide a complete description of the topic The most important characteristic of level I questions is that they are based on topics that have not been studied before and about which little information is available They ask about one concept only No reference to relationships, causes, or effects should be in Level I question

    13. Second Level Research Questions Second level question - If your topic has already been described and you have found a description in research literature focus on the relationships between two or more variables previously described but never before studied together. At this level, you have considerably more knowledge about the topic than you did at the first level, however,enough is not yet known to predict the relationship between variables. Build on the results of studies at the first level When a topic has been thoroughly described, it is possible to identify measurable variables. The next step is to look for relationships between these variables. At Level II questions: Stem question asks, What is the relationship? Topic contains two or more variables. The answer to the question at the second level is determined by the significance of the relationship between the variables. When you study two variables together, you need to have rationale to explain their proposed relationship. You must discuss the concepts behind the variables and propose that a relationship may exist between (or among) them.

    14. Variables in Second Level Research Questions Each question must have a minimum of two variables written in such a way that they both vary. A question that asks What is the relationship between drivers positive and negative attitudes toward traffic lights? has only one variable, drivers attitudes. Positive and negative are merely two categories of attitudes. When a Level II question is written properly, it will ask about the relationship between(a) and (b)

    15. Third Level Research Questions Questions at the third level require considerable knowledge of the topic. Test predictive hypotheses about the variables. Knowledge required for the development of hypotheses is based on the results of second level studies; therefore, the action of all variables can be predicted. Questions that lead to testing a cause-and-effect relationship between them are in Level III categories. At Level III, the question asks why this relationship exists, and you must provide the answer, which always begins with because... and ends with an explanation from theory or prior research findings.

    16. All Level III questions lead to experimental designs. The questions look like this: You must answer the initial why question before you can propose to test the exact relationship between your variable. Each of these why question has two variables, and each question specifies that one variable either causes or influences the action of the other variable in a certain way. The study resulting from a level III question will test the theory. Third Level Questions (cont.)

    17. Summary Move from big to small when defining your question Define your research question using an active stem Decide the level of your question Choose appropriate variables to answer your question Most importantly, talk to colleagues, exchange ideas, and refine questions in an iterative process.