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Welcome to class . Good to have you here today! Dr. Brennan. The Importance of Listening. Our motives and/or needs cause us to filter what we listen to and what we don’t listen to in various communication contexts. The process of listening involves listening with our:. Ears

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welcome to class

Welcome to class 

Good to have you here today!

Dr. Brennan

the importance of listening
The Importance of Listening
  • Our motives and/or needs cause us to filter what we listen to and what we don’t listen to in various communication contexts.
the process of listening involves listening with our
The process of listening involves listening with our:
  • Ears
  • Eyes Physiological
  • Body
  • Mind – Psychological
  • Hearts – Emotion, empathetic
  • Environment – Social
  • Soul - Spiritual
dichotic listening
Dichotic Listening:
  • Dichotic listening occurs when a person receives two messages simultaneously –
  • Denotative
  • Connotative
shadowing
Shadowing:
  • Shadowing occurs when you repeat a continuous verbal message as you hear it.
  • In other words, following the verbal message word by word to ensure complete understanding.
receiver apprehension or listener apprehension
Receiver Apprehension or Listener Apprehension:
  • Just as some people are fearful of presenting a speech or speaking up during a meeting, research suggests that some people are fearful of receiving information, thus “receiver apprehension or listener apprehension.”
receiver apprehension
Receiver Apprehension
  • Receiver apprehension is being fearful of misunderstanding or misinterpreting the messages spoken by others or not being able to adjust psychologically to messages expressed by others.
receiver apprehension8
Receiver Apprehension
  • Some people may just be fearful of receiving new information and being unable to understand it.
  • Apprehension may also be a characteristic or a pattern in the way some people respond psychologically to information.
receiver apprehension9
Receiver Apprehension
  • Some people may not be able to make sense out of what they heard which causes them to become anxious or fearful of listening to others.
  • People who are fearful of receiving information remember less of the messages being sent to them.
tips for coping with receiver apprehension
Tips for coping with receiver apprehension:
  • 1. In some instances (such as a classroom) you might be able to tape record (therefore not having to be concerned about getting each and every point) your professor.
  • 2.You can also become actively involved in the listening process by:
    • A. Taking notes
    • B.  Mentally summarizing and repeating

the information to yourself.

appreciative listening
Appreciative Listening:
  • What is it and why do we do it?
appreciative listening12
Appreciative Listening:
  • Wolvin and Coakley (1996) defined appreciative listening as a “process of listening in order to obtain sensory stimulation or enjoyment through the works and experiences of others.”
developing appreciative listening
Developing Appreciative Listening:
  • 1. Identifying specific things that

give you listening pleasure.

    • What do you like to listen to?
  • 2. Deliberately searching for ways to expand the focus of your appreciative listening.
    • Don’t get stuck in a rut.
developing appreciative listening14
Developing Appreciative Listening:
  • 3. Developing a positive attitude and willingness to spend time listening appreciatively.
    • Just do it!
the message
The Message
  • Denotative message – dictionary meaning.
  • Connotative message – emotional meaning.
  • Relational message - relationship
hurier model
HURIER Model
  • The letters in HURIER represents six interrelated listening processes:
  • Hearing
  • Understanding
  • Remembering
  • Interpreting
  • Evaluating
  • Responding
hurier model18
HURIER Model
  • Understanding
listening understanding
Listening - Understanding
  • Understanding is composed of several elements:
    • Selection
    • Organization
    • Interpretation
understanding what you hear
Understanding What You Hear
  • Due to differences in past experiences and associations, each person imposes his/her own internal meaning on what they hear.
welcome to class21

Welcome to class 

Good to have you here today!

Dr. Brennan

understanding what you hear22
Understanding What You Hear
  • As we listen, we hear literally thousands of possible images that have been formed over the years of accumulated experience.
understanding what you hear23
Understanding What You Hear
  • When we hear a sequence of sounds, we scan through information in our long-term memory – a virtual warehouse full of past experiences, associations, values, assumptions, and language-related impressions
understanding what you hear24
Understanding What You Hear
  • Words derive their impact from the past associations and expectations they elicit, no word is without what scholars refer to as connotative meaning.
  • Connotative meaning is associated with emotion from experience.
    • Song lyrics – often associated with experiences.
understanding what you hear25
Understanding What You Hear
  • In addition to recognizing sound cues, people must also put incoming data into some kind of framework to make it meaningful.
  • In other words, the individual becomes the author of their own version of the context.
understanding what you hear26
Understanding What You Hear
  • A listener compares incoming information to previous knowledge, forms relationships between new and old ideas, and creates a personalized memory file.
  • Meaning then is never really literal.
symbols and meanings
Symbols and Meanings
  • Precise and concrete language facilitates shared meaning – yet, regardless of symbols used to express ideas, our meanings for a particular word are NEVER replicated exactly in someone else’s mind.
symbols and meanings28
Symbols and Meanings
  • Some theorist suggests that only when individuals have shared similar experiences can they ever really understand the meaning of the language used to describe their experience.
    • Stories about soldiers or war - if you have never experienced either one makes it difficult to fully understand the concepts associated with war.
symbols and meanings29
Symbols and Meanings
  • Understanding is relative a best.
    • The meanings we assign are approximate, especially when individuals’ perceptual worlds are different.
symbols and meanings30
Symbols and Meanings
  • Language & Thought
  • Inner Speech
symbols and meanings31
Symbols and Meanings
  • 1. Language and perception of the world are strongly connected. We only understand what we can convey in words.
  • 2. Understanding is key to meaning and it is a two way process between sender and receiver.
symbols and meanings32
Symbols and Meanings
  • 3. Language is symbolic
  • 4. Language is rule-governed – The only reason symbol-laden language works is because people agree on how to use it.
    • The agreements that make communication work is by the rules of language.
language
Language
  • What is the importance of language?
  • What makes up language?
    • Words, words, words.
words words words
Symbols

Arbitrary

Context bound

Culturally bound

Denotative meaning

Connotative meaning

Concrete meanings

Abstract meanings

What is your favorite word? Why?

Words, Words, Words
what are words
What are words?
  • According to Webster’s Dictionary (1995), a word is: a sound or combination of sounds used in expressing and/or representing an idea, thought, concept, object or term.
what are words36
What are words?
  • According to Webster’s Dictionary (1995), a word is: a sound or combination of sounds used in expressing and/or representing an idea, thought, concept, object or term.
  • Words are used for labels
what are words37
What are words?
  • A word is a term we give to an object. It will represent that object only if society agrees to it.
  • If I say, “chair,” what comes to mind?
what are words38
What are words?
  • A word is a term we give to an object. It will represent that object only if society agrees to it.
  • If I say, “chair,” what comes to mind?
  • Maybe a recliner, wingback chair or dining room chair.
inner speech
Inner Speech
  • We all carry on a stream of internal conversations with ourselves.
  • This self-talk is called by scholars as inner speech.
inner speech40
Inner Speech
  • Inner speech serves a variety of functions in the listening process.
    • 1. Facilitates symbolic thought as you create personal meanings for the words you hear.
      • In other words, inner speech shapes how you think about things.
inner speech41
Inner Speech
  • Inner speech consists of four characteristics:
  • 1. Egocentric – turning inward for meaning based upon one’s experiences and associations.
inner speech42
Inner Speech
  • Inner speech consists of four characteristics:
  • 2. Silent – As soon as you verbalize your thoughts, the activity is no longer inner speech. Inner speech is silent and private.
inner speech43
Inner Speech
  • Inner speech consists of four characteristics:
  • 3. Compressed Syntax – Inner speech is not constructed the same way as spoken language.
  • In other words, you are thinking of key words and/or phrases.
inner speech44
Inner Speech
  • Inner speech consists of four characteristics:
  • 4. Semantic Embeddedness – Your frame of reference is used to make sense of what you hear.
    • Your understanding of the rules of language.
    • Associations and experiences.
semantic reactions
Semantic Reactions:
  • People have reactions to words that they have difficulty distinguishing between real and fiction in their environment and the mental images elicited by words used to describe objects and events.
semantic reactions46
Semantic Reactions:
  • This is called semantic reactions:
    • You respond to the word as if it were the thing described.
      • Jumping when hearing the word “fire” rather than waiting to witness the smoke and flames.
comprehension understanding
Comprehension - Understanding
  • People can move closer to a common understanding or a shared definition of the situation in a variety of approaches:
comprehension understanding48
Comprehension - Understanding
  • 1. Sharing and building vocabulary.
  • Those who have command of a language are often able to bring new insights to others simply through their sensitive use of words.
comprehension understanding49
Comprehension - Understanding
  • Ways to develop our vocabularies:
    • 1. Keep a dictionary handy.
    • 2. Write down new words.
    • 3. Use new words.
comprehension understanding50
Comprehension - Understanding
  • Numerous miscommunications are created by language-related behavior occurs every day.
    • A man who brought a book on the game of bridge with him on a short flight. A flight attendant glanced over his shoulder and commented; “That must be a fascinating love story you’re reading.” Looking down the man saw the chapter title: “Free response after the original pass.”
comprehension understanding51
Comprehension - Understanding
  • There are several ways to improve understanding.
comprehension understanding52
Comprehension - Understanding
  • One way to improve understanding is know as perception checking.
  • Ask appropriate questions:
    • Closed
    • Open
    • Probes
    • Leading
comprehension understanding53
Comprehension - Understanding
  • Another way to improve understanding is known as listening to the entire message.
  • Let the speaker finish!
    • Monitor your behavior – interrupting.
    • Listen to understand, not to refute.
    • Solicit help from others.
comprehension understanding54
Comprehension - Understanding
  • Another way to improve understanding is looking for patterns of organization:
    • Chronological
    • Topical
    • Spatial
    • Order of importance of complexity
    • Problem-solution
comprehension understanding55
Comprehension - Understanding
  • The final way to improve understanding is note-taking.
  • Studies have suggested that students can gain 15% more out of any communication situation by asking questions and 20% more by taking notes.
comprehension understanding56
Comprehension - Understanding
  • When used effectively, note taking serves not only as a means of storing information but also as a technique for making sense of ideas presented.
  • However, many students reported not knowing how to take good notes.
  • One reason for bad note taking was rehearsal listening – patterned listening response.
comprehension understanding57
Comprehension - Understanding
  • There are several proven note taking methods:
  • Concept versus Fact Method
    • Two columns on a sheet of paper.
    • Left column – Concept (sun rays harmful)
    • Right column – Fact (Heat stroke,

sunburn,etc)

comprehension understanding58
Comprehension - Understanding
  • There are several proven note taking methods:
  • Outline Method
    • I. Main Point
      • A. Sub-point
      • B. sub-point

II. Main Point

      • A. Sub-point
      • B. sub-point

III. Main Point

      • A. Sub-point
      • B. sub-point
comprehension understanding59
Comprehension - Understanding
  • There are several proven note taking methods:
  • Precis – writing a summary of what you hear after listening for a few minutes (break in lecture).
comprehension understanding60
Comprehension - Understanding
  • There are several proven note taking methods:
  • Mapping – involves organizing information visually to see the connections.
comprehension understanding61
Comprehension - Understanding
  • Understanding the a vital key to listening.
  • Without the skill to listen the benefits to effective communications escapes us and becomes out of reach.
  • Without understanding, effective and satisfying communication becomes virtually impossible.
the importance of listening62
The Importance of Listening
  • Our motives and/or needs cause us to filter what we listen to and what we don’t listen to in various communication contexts.
the process of listening involves listening with our63
The process of listening involves listening with our:
  • Ears
  • Eyes Physiological
  • Body
  • Mind – Psychological
  • Hearts – Emotion, empathetic
  • Environment – Social
  • Soul - Spiritual