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Synaptic transmission. Communication between neurons and other body cells: Other neurons, glands, and muscles. Chemical communication. Neurotransmitters Neuromodulators and ectopic synapses Hormones Pheromones. Structure of the synapse. Terminal button and presynaptic membrane

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synaptic transmission

Synaptic transmission

Communication between neurons and other body cells: Other neurons, glands, and muscles

chemical communication
Chemical communication
  • Neurotransmitters
  • Neuromodulators and ectopic synapses
  • Hormones
  • Pheromones
structure of the synapse
Structure of the synapse

Terminal button and presynaptic membrane

Synaptic vesicles: small and large

Synaptic gap

Post-synaptic membrane and receptor sites/ receptor density

Autoreceptors

the process presynaptic
The process: Presynaptic
  • Preparation: Docked vesicles
  • Arrival of the action potential
  • Opening of voltage-dependent calcium channels
  • Separation of docking proteins opens fusion pore
    • Wfigures
the process postsynaptic
The process: Postsynaptic
  • Momentary affinity and binding
  • Neurotransmitter-dependent ion channels
    • A. Ionotropic receptors
    • B. Metabotropic receptors
      • 1. G-proteins a subunit to ion channels
      • 2. G-proteins a subunit to second messengers
        • cAMP, cGMP to
          • a. ion channels, or
          • b. nucleus
postsynaptic potentials
Postsynaptic potentials
  • EPSP
    • Na+ channels open, Na+ enters
    • If Cl- channels open, Na+ EPSP is limited
    • Ca2+ channels open, Ca2+ enters
      • This affects not only the EPSP, but also binds with proteins to activate enzymes
  • IPSP
    • K+ channels open, K+ leaves
    • Cl- channels open
summation
Summation
  • Temporal summation
  • Spatial summation
  • Graded potentials
  • Cable conduction
stopping the process
Stopping the process
  • Reuptake
    • From cleft by transporters to sending cell
    • Assisted by glial cells?
    • Second step: Re-storing in vesicles
  • Enzyme action
    • Acetylcholine esterase (AChE) in cleft
    • MAO and COMT are inside terminal button, so are not involved in stopping transmission
axoaxonic synapses
Axoaxonic synapses
    • Presynaptic inhibition
    • Presynaptic facilitation
  • Dendrodendritic synapses
    • Chemical
    • Ionic (Gap junctions)
  • Retrograde synapses
    • CO and NO feedback from postsynaptic cell to presynaptic cell: Agonistic effect
other chemical communication
Other chemical communication
  • Neuromodulators
  • Hormones
    • Peptides act on metabotropic receptors with second messengers
    • Steroids
      • act on receptors in the nucleus
      • act on synapses, with a rapid effect on synaptic transmission