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Structure of Language. phonemes: basic speech sounds morphemes : smallest unit of language that contains meaning surface structure : the words and phrases comprising a particular sentence deep structure : the underlying meaning of a sentence. Rules of Language.

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structure of language
Structure of Language
  • phonemes: basic speech sounds
  • morphemes: smallest unit of language that contains meaning
  • surface structure: the words and phrases comprising a particular sentence
  • deep structure: the underlying meaning of a sentence
rules of language
Rules of Language
  • grammar: a system of rules that enable us to speak and understand
  • semantics: rules we use to derive meaning from morphemes
  • syntax: rules we use to order words into sentences
mental imagery
Mental Imagery
  • An image is a mental representation of a sensory experience.
  • We use imagery as an aid in conceptualizing and solving problems.
  • Images allow us to use concrete forms to represent complex and abstract ideas.
concepts
Concepts
  • concept: A mental category for classifying objects, people, or experiences.
  • prototype: A mental model containing the most typical features of a concept.
  • idealized cognitive model: Our conceptions of events as we expect to typically find them.
problem solving
Problem Solving
  • problem representation: interpreting or defining the problem
  • select a solution strategy that best suits the problem
possible solution strategies
Possible Solution Strategies
  • trial and error
  • information retrieval: recovery of information from LTM is all that is necessary
  • algorithm: systematical evaluation of all possible solutions to a problem
  • heuristics: rules of thumb strategies for problem solving
heuristics
Heuristics
  • hill climbing: each step moves progressively toward the final goal
  • subgoals: creation of intermediate and more manageable goals
  • means-end analysis: reducing discrepancy between current and desired states
heuristics8
Heuristics
  • working backwards: moving from the desired state to the current state
  • availability: basing our judgments on the availability of information in our memories
  • representativeness: judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent particular prototypes
obstacles to problem solving
Obstacles to Problem Solving
  • an individual’s level of motivation
  • set: The tendency to perceive and to approach problems in certain ways.
  • functional fixedness: The tendency to perceive only a limited number of uses for an object.
obstacles to problem solving10
Obstacles to Problem Solving
  • confirmation bias: The tendency to look for evidence in support of a belief and to ignore evidence that would disprove a belief.
improving problem solving ability
Improving Problem Solving Ability
  • tacit of elimination: Possible solutions are evaluated according to appropriate criteria and discarded as they fail to provide a solution.
  • visualization: Concepts are drawn, diagrammed, or charted so that they can be better understood.