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Semantics Continued…. Meaning Relationships Entailments Maxims of Conversation. Semantic relationships. The semantic relationships we will discuss here are: Hyponyms – X is a subset of Y Synonyms – X is similar to Y Antonyms – X is opposite of Y Homonyms – X sounds/spelled like Y

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semantics continued

Semantics Continued…

Meaning Relationships

Entailments

Maxims of Conversation

semantic relationships
Semantic relationships
  • The semantic relationships we will discuss here are:
    • Hyponyms – X is a subset of Y
    • Synonyms – X is similar to Y
    • Antonyms – X is opposite of Y
    • Homonyms – X sounds/spelled like Y
    • Entailment – X is entailed by Y (If X, then Y)
hyponyms
Hyponyms
  • X is a hyponym of Y if X is a subsetof Y.
  • For example, consider the two words “bird” and “parakeet”.
    • Tweety and Polly are parakeets.
    • The current set of parakeets contains these two members.
    • The current set of bird contains at least these two members, possibly others.
    • Parakeet is a subset of bird, so parakeet is a hyponym of bird.
hyponyms4
Hyponyms
  • Hyponymy can be seen as the loss of specificity.
  • It involves moving from more specific to more general.
synonyms
Synonyms
  • Two words are synonymous if they share the same meaning.
    • Rarely are word meanings 100% identical
    • Used in different contexts, have different connotations [sofa vs. couch]
  • While it is difficult to find two exactly identical words, there are examples of synonyms in our everyday language:
synonyms6
Synonyms

cease/stop

dog/canine

quick/rapid

  • There is no dog that is not a canine.
  • Every couch is also a sofa.
  • If you cease, you also stop
antonyms
Antonyms
  • In its barest form, antonymy refers to the condition of being opposites.
    • Complementary/contradictory
      • Complete/incomplete, married/single
      • Must be one or the other
    • Relational opposites/contraries
      • Over/under, doctor/patient, stop/go
      • Can be neither, represent symmetrical relationships
    • Scalar antonyms/gradable pairs
      • Hot/cold, big/small, tall/short
      • Can be neither, represent extremes on a scale
antonyms8
Antonyms
  • Complementary/contradictory pairs
    • Given X and Y, every entity in the world is either in X’s set or in Y’s set, but never in both.
      • married/unmarried
      • visible/invisible
antonyms9
Antonyms
  • Relational opposites / Contraries
    • Given X and Y, everything in the world is in X’s set, in Y’s set, or in neither set, but never in both sets.
      • over/under
        • An object can be over or under another, but never both. It could also be NEXT TO another object.
      • married/bachelor
        • A man can be married or a bachelor, but not both. He could also be a divorcé or a widower.
antonyms10
Antonyms
  • Scalar antonyms/Gradable pairs
    • Given X and Y, X and Y fulfill the conditions for being relational opposites but in addition can be interpreted as endpoints on some scale.
      • good/bad
      • hot/cold
      • strong/weak
        • A good test for this kind of relationship is the potential use of the modifier “quite”.
homonym
Homonym
  • Source of much lexical ambiguity
  • Different words with the same form but with different meanings.
    • Homonym – [sounds & spelled the same]
      • pen/pen, pool/pool
    • Homophone [sounds the same]
      • tale/tail, knight/night, pen/pen, tier/tear
    • Homograph [spelled the same]
      • tear []/tear [], pen/pen, lead [lId]/lead [lEd]
entailments
Entailments
  • If A, then B (but not necessarily vice versa)
  • 1. If something is an A, it must also be a B, too.
  • 2. If something is not a B, then it cannot be an A.

A = mare

B = horse

C = animal

C

C

B

A

A

semantic entailments
Semantic Entailments
  • Inferences
    • The sheriff killed Jesse.
    • Entails: Jesse is dead.
  • Semantic decomposition:
    • kill = cause someone to die
    • die = to become dead
    • *The sheriff killed Jesse, but Jesse is still alive.
    • Alive = not dead
pragmatics
Pragmatics
  • “Want to see a movie tonight?”
    • “I have to study.”
  • “What do you want for your birthday?
    • “Well, my camera is broken…”
maxims of conversation
Maxims of Conversation
  • Quantity
    • Don’t say more or less than is required
  • Relevance
    • Be relevant
  • Manner
    • Avoid ambiguity, be brief and orderly
  • Quality
    • Be truthful
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