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Deafness and Hard of Hearing. Chapter 10. Kelly Talbot Kristin Milam Marc Truelove Stacie Wommack-Entzminger. Deafness and Hard of Hearing Defined.

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Deafness and Hard of Hearing

Chapter 10


Kelly talbot kristin milam marc truelove stacie wommack entzminger l.jpg

Kelly Talbot

Kristin Milam

Marc Truelove

Stacie Wommack-Entzminger


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Deafness and Hard of Hearing Defined

  • Deaf: An inability to usefully perceive sounds in the environment with or without the use of a hearing aid; inability to use hearing as the primary way to gain information.

  • Hard of Hearing: Having sufficient residual hearing to be able, with a hearing aid, to comprehend others’ speech and oral communication.


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Prelingually Deaf: Having lost the ability to hear before developing language.

a. Approximately 95% of all deaf children and youth are prelingually deaf. b. One in ten of those who are prelingually deaf have at least one deaf parent

Postlingually Deaf: Having lost the ability to hear after developing language


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What is hearing loss?

  • Hearing loss results when the ear and hearing mechanism are damaged or obstructed


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Process of hearing(10 step program)

  • Person speaks and the sound waves from the words pass thru the air are:

    1. Caught by the pinna or auricle and 2. Funneled down the auditory canal of the listener;

    3. Sound waves then travel to the middle ear 4. Sound waves cause the eardrum to vibrate. 5. Vibrations cause the hammer and anvil to move and the stirrup to oscillate


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6. The eardrum converts pressure variations to mechanical vibrations,

7. Which are then transmitted to the fluid contained in the compartments of the cochlea.

8. The mechanical variations produced by the stirrup on the fluid are

9. Transmitted to the basement membrane of the cochlea. This membrane supports the hair cells, which respond to different frequencies of sounds. when the spines or cilia displace the fluid that surrounds them,

10. This produces electrochemical signals, which are sent thru nerve cells along the auditory nerve to the brain where the signals are perceived as tones.

“The End”


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II. Types of Hearing Loss vibrations,

  • 1. Conductive hearing loss: Hearing losses caused by damage or obstruction to the outer or middle ear that prevents transfer of sound to the inner ear. a. Some conductive hearing loss is temporary.

  • 2. Sensorineural hearing loss: Hearing loss caused by damage to the inner ear or the auditory nerve.


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Identification vibrations,

  • 1. Otoacoustic emissions (OEA) test: An inexpensive five-minute procedure that tests newborns’ hearing by measuring the vibration of hair cells in the cochlea in the presence of sound.

  • 2. Air conduction audiometry method: (Means by which most children’s hearing is assessed by), which uses pure-tone sounds generated by an audiometer. Earphones are placed over the child’s ears, and the child raises his or her hand when hearing a sound.


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IV. Significance vibrations,

  • Of course, all hearing losses are serious, but at some point a hearing loss substantially influences the way in which a child needs to be taught and how well the individual can use the communication modes of nondisabled peers.


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History of the Field vibrations,

  • People:

    1. Pedro Ponce de Leon (1500’s): A spanish monk credited with being the first teacher of students who were deaf.

    2. William Holder and John Wallis (1600’s): credited with beginning educational programs in England for individuals who were deaf.


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People vibrations, (Continued)

By the 1700’s, schools for the deaf were established in England, Edinburgh, France, and in Germany.

3. Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet brought Laurent Clerc, a deaf Frenchman and a well-known educator of the deaf, to the United States. Started Gallaudet University in 1817, the first federally funded university serving deaf undergraduate and graduate students.


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Controversy vibrations,

  • 1. Debate about the oral versus the manual (hand) method of instruction and communication are deep in the history of this field. The period between the 1860s and 1960s was of highest controversy. Debates between Edward Gallaudet (Thomas Gallaudet’s son), and Alexander Graham Bell ended up in Congress and influenced federal funding. Gallaudet was supported by Congress, weren’t they a bunch of nice guys?


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Pride and Culture vibrations,

  • Deaf Pride and Deaf culture, since the late 1980s, have gained in numbers and in visibility. They are now seen as a significant advocacy group.


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Prevalence vibrations,

  • Approximately 21 million people in the United States have trouble hearing.

  • During the 1996-1997 school year 68,641 students were classified as deaf or hard of hearing.

  • The rate of Hispanic students identified as having hearing looses has more than doubled since 1974.


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Maternal vibrations, Rubella- rubella contracted during pregnancy.

Meningitis-bacterial rather than viral.

Otitis Media-infection of the middle ear.

Heredity- 150 different types of genetic deafness have been identified

Noise- the major cause of hearing loss in this country.

Causes of Deafness


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Prevention vibrations,

  • Some hearing losses can be prevented today.

  • Wear ear protector when around loud noises (See page 428).

  • Keep up to date on immunizations and vaccinations.


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Medical Technology vibrations,

  • Cochlear implant are used today to help some, but only bring a crude awareness of sound.

  • Cochlear implants are very controversial in the Deaf community.

  • Implant do not “cure” deafness


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Early Intervention is CRITICAL vibrations,

  • Early intervention can make a significant difference in the individual’s overall outcomes.

  • Deaf and hard of hearing children identified early perform close to children without hearing losses.

  • Only seventeen states currently have laws requiring infant and newborn hearing tests.


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Deaf Culture vibrations,

  • Considered by many as a minority group such as an racial or ethnic group

  • Deafness is the common culture among the group

  • The Deaf community utilizes American Sign Language (ASL)


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Deaf Culture vibrations, (Continued)

  • ASL is unlike English in both structure and word order

  • ASL is considered a fully developed language and meets foreign language requirements in some high schools and universities

  • Deafness present at birth is considered a language difference not a language disorder or disability, although for those who became deaf later in life it may be considered a disability

  • Many children born deaf don’t develop language at the appropriate age which impedes cognitive and social skills development


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Reading & Speech Ability vibrations,

  • Because of the difference between ASL and English reading everyday information, such as the newspaper, is very difficult

  • Closed captions for movies and television move very quickly and require an ability to read WELL

  • Being able to understand someone who is deaf is also partly determined by the experience of the listener


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Reading & Speech Ability vibrations,

  • It takes years of effort and systematic instruction for some individuals to learn to speak

  • Judging a deaf person’s intellect and character are often based on speech, however this is not a proper assessment tool


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Technology vibrations,

  • Alarm clocks that vibrate the bed, TV captions, and different flashing light patterns for home accessories

  •  Assistive listening devices such as hearing aids or cochlear implants which are also a controversial issue

  • FM transmission devices have been used for years in classrooms


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Technology vibrations, (continued)

  • Real time captioning for lectures using a stenographer

  • Text telephones which can also be used with cell phones and telecommunications relay service (Relay Texas dial 711 or 1-800-RELAY-TX)


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Educational Interventions vibrations, and Families

  • Acceptance and inclusion by their families

  • All families use different coping and problem solving skills

  • Deaf parents usually celebrate and have great relief

  • Hearing parents are frightened, devastated, and stress because lack of ability to communicate


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Educational Interventions and Families vibrations,

  • Receive early interventions late

  • Results in 2 years lost in child language development

  • Parents lose 2 years in learning manual communication


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Education and Preschool Child Programs vibrations,

  • Early identification & implementation allow proper time for language development

  • Assist families needs

  • Some students are at different levels

  • Deaf children of deaf parents are reading 2 grade levels above deaf children of hearing parents


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Instruction for Hard of Hearing Students: vibrations,

43% present lessons orally

Proactive good peer relationships

Parents are resourceful

Instructional Methods for Deaf Students

Oral-only Approach

Total Communication Approach

Cued Speech

Bilingual-Bicultural Approach

**Only 5% of teachers of the deaf use ASL, finger spelling is more common

Education and the School Child


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Instructional Methods for Deaf Students vibrations,

  • Oral-only Approach- 1970’s students speech-read (lip-reading) and learn how to speak. Gestures and signing are discouraged

  • Total Communication Approach- 72% incorporates oral speech and manual communication (signing). Easiest and most effective for child.


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  • Cued Speech vibrations, - use hand signals to accompany oral speech. Popular with hearing parents because it follows English language format and structure.

  • Bilingual-Bicultural Approach- newest method where English is taught as a second language by using ASL (American Sign Language).

  • **Only 5% of teachers of the deaf use ASL, finger spelling is more common


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Transition through Adulthood vibrations,

Educational options:

  • 1998 median annual income for a deaf student at Gallaudet University:

    $32,820- Enrolled Undergraduate

    $39,229- Bachelor’s Degree

    $41,000- Master’s Degree


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Transition through Adulthood vibrations,

  • Federal Postsecondary Schools

  • Gallaudet University- receives federal funding for undergraduate and graduate students.

  • National Technical Institute for the Deaf (NTID)- in New York which offers technical and vocational degrees.


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Transition through Adulthood vibrations,

  • State & Private Universities

  • (1964) only 6 college programs

  • (1982-1985) 37 colleges added programs

  • (1995) 200 colleges were serving over 8,000 students


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Determining LRE vibrations,

Controversial Issue

  • Parents believe that general education is not the LRE for deaf children

  • low incidence disability

  • 45% of teachers use auditory/oral approach

  • lack of effective communication between peers and school staff

  • deaf children experience isolation and rejection


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What is the best LRE? vibrations,

Individually determined by the ARD committee

based on following questions:

  • How severe is the student’s hearing loss?

  • Is the student able to use speech?

  • Can appropriate educational services be made available locally?

  • Are the necessary support services available?



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THE END Students Demonstration