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Deaf and Hard of Hearing. Izhar Mohamed Nichol Siedow Tria Yang. Definition of Deaf and Hard of Hearing. According to the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary: Deaf is defined as: 1. Lacking or deficient in the sense of hearing. 2. Unwilling to hear or listen.

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deaf and hard of hearing

Deaf and Hard of Hearing

Izhar Mohamed

Nichol Siedow

Tria Yang

definition of deaf and hard of hearing
Definition of Deaf and Hard of Hearing

According to the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary:

Deaf is defined as:

1. Lacking or deficient in the sense of hearing.

2. Unwilling to hear or listen.

Hard of Hearing is defines as:

1. Relating to or having a defective but functional sense of hearing.

terms specific to the disorder
Terms Specific to the Disorder
  • ACOUSTICS- Having to do with sound, the sense of hearing, or the science of sound.
  • ADVENTITIOUS DEAFNESS: A hearing loss that occurs any time after birth due to injury or disease.
  • ACQUIRED HEARING LOSS: Hearing loss which is not present at birth. Sometimes referred to as adventitious loss.
  • AMERICAN SIGN LANGUAGE (ASL): A visual/gestural language used by many deaf people in the United States and Canada.
  • AMPLIFICATION: The use of hearing aids and other electronic devices to increase the loudness of sound so that it may be more easily received and understood.
  • AUDITORY/ORAL EDUCATION: An approach based on the principle that most deaf and hard-of-hearing children can be taught to listen and speak with early intervention and consistent training to develop their hearing potential. The focus of this educational approach is to use the auditory channel (or hearing) to acquire speech and oral language. The goal is for these children to grow up to become independent, participating citizens in mainstream society. Also known as Oral Deaf Education.
  • AUDITORY TRAINING: The process of training a person's residual hearing in the recognition, identification, and interpretation of sound.
  • FINGERSPELLING: Representation of the alphabet by finger positions in order to spell out words or longer strings of language.
more terms
More Terms
  • CONDUCTIVE HEARING L OSS: occurs when sound vibrations don't go from the air around a person to the moving bones of the inner ear as well as they should. Examples: something is blocking the ear canal, like ear wax, fluid inside the inner ear where the bones are, bones of the ear get a buildup of calcium. Conductive hearing loss doesn't cause a total inability to hear, but it does cause a loss of loudness and a loss of clarity. Sounds are heard, but they are weak, muffled, and distorted.
  • CUED SPEECH: A visual representation of the phonemes of spoken language, which uses eight hand shapes in four different locations in combination with the natural mouth movements of speech, to distinguish all the sounds of spoken language.
  • MIXED HEARING LOSS: a combination of conductive and neural hearing losses.
  • REAL-TIME CAPTIONING: On-line captioning for television screens and monitors giving the printed speech of live speakers.
  • RESIDUAL HEARING: The amount of usable hearing which a deaf or hard-of-hearing person has.
  • SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS: A permanent hearing loss caused by failure or damage of auditory fibers in the inner ear (cochlea) and/or damage to the neural system.
  • SPEECHREADING: The interpretation of lip and mouth movements, facial expressions, gestures, elements of sound, structural characteristics of language, and topical and contextual clues. Sometimes referred to as aslipreading.
  • Hereditary
  • Injuries:
    • Puncture of Eardrum
    • Nerve Damage
    • Loud Noises
  • Diseases:
    • Ear Infections
    • Otosclerosis-portions of the middle ear or inner ear develop growths like bony sponges
    • Meningitis- inflammation of the membrane that surrounds the brain and the spinal colum
  • Physical
    • recurring ear infections
    • may wear hearing aids
    • may move around the classroom to get closer to sound source
    • may appear physically unco-ordinated in some activities.
  • Social/Emotional/Behavioural
    • may choose younger and/or handicapped students as peer group
    • frequently misunderstands peers
    • may seem to be "overly social" or "nosey“
    • may demonstrate aggressive behaviour due to frustration
  • Cognitive/Academic
    • has reading comprehension skills which may be below grade level
    • has reading comprehension skills which are weaker than word recognition skills
    • watches or copies other students before starting tasks
    • needs frequent repetition/clarification of instructions and content material
  • Speech/Language
    • has difficulty with word order and complex language structures
    • has noticeable articulation difficulties and may omit word endings
    • has difficulty monitoring voice loudness and/or pitch
    • has a nasal quality to speech
    • has difficulty pronouncing words of more than two syllables
school settings
School Settings

Children who are deaf:

  • Will need a teacher aide, one who does sign language.
  • Sometimes will go to a school that works with children who are deaf.
    • Northern Voices

1660 West County Road B

Roseville, MN 55113

Children who are hard of hearing:

  • Children will sometimes have hearing aides.
  • Depends on the severity.
    • The more severe
      • A teacher aide is needed when in the mainstream classroom.
      • Will usually go see a specialist during the school day
    • Less severe
      • Might not need a teacher aide in the mainstream class.
      • Will most likely be in the mainstream class but will still go see a specialist

Lots of visual aides, chartsand graphs should be used in the room!

some teaching strategies
Some Teaching Strategies
  • Auditory Cues:
    • Use acoustic highlighting- emphasizing the targeted sound(s).
      • Examples: home, cake
  • Seating Arrangement
another teaching strategy
Another Teaching Strategy
  • Visual Cues:
    • Visual Phonics
      • Has 45 hand and grapheme cues
      • Learn to associate Visual Phonics cues with phonemes.
    • Cued Speech
      • Has 8 hand shapes and 4 locations for the mouth
      • Learn about phonological information. They learn to internalize it and will externalize it when speaking.
    • Speechreading (Lip Reading)
      • Make inferences about the phonemic information.
    • Syllabication
      • Precursor to phonemic awareness such as phoneme segmentation and blending.
lets play classroom feud
Lets Play Classroom Feud!

We need 2 groups please!

works cited
Works Cited
  • Narr, R. (2006, March). Teaching Phonological Awareness With Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Students. Teaching Exceptional Children, 38(4), 53-58. Retrieved March 28, 2009, from Academic Search Premier database.
  • Author Unknown. (2005). Hearing Health Dictionary. Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing. Retrieved April 4th, 2009, from
  • Author Unknown. (2008). Types of Causes of Deafness. Think Quest. Retrieved April 4th, 2009, from
  • Author Unknown. (2009). Students who are Deaf and Hard of Hearing. Special Needs Ontario Window. Retrieved April 4th, 2009, from