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Initial Considerations. grammar. Definition: The syntactical relationship of words in a sentence. Meaning of words ( lexicography ); form and function of words ( morphology ); order of words ( syntax ). Important Considerations. grammar.

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initial considerations

Initial Considerations


Definition: The syntactical relationship of words in a sentence.

Meaning of words (lexicography); form and function of words (morphology); order of words (syntax)

important considerations

Important Considerations


Word order & parts of speech. English = sub, verb, obj; Heb – verb, subj, obj; Gk = anything

Types of sentences: Declarative, questions, imperative, exclamatory

Punctuation: While not in the original, it can radically alter meaning

The teacher said Johnny is an idiot

Cf. Lk 3:23; Rom 9:5, etc.

grammatical considerations

Grammatical Considerations


2. Study of grammar may not solve all problems but will narrow our range of possibilities.

1. Grammar is not generally most important

3. English (only) readers are often more balanced in exegesis because they do not spend too much time on original languages.

grammatical considerations4

Grammatical Considerations


5. Observe carefully conjunctions (Heb 12:1), prepositions (Acts 2:38), and pronouns (Acts 2:1)

4. Identify theme, verb tense (Jn 20:23), and subject (Rom 8:26) of the sentence.

6. Helps to identify the original syntax: Translations, commentaries, interlinear, and analytical lexicons.

grammatical considerations5

Grammatical Considerations


For Greek Students

7. Understand the basic elements of a verb.

8. Understand the basic elements of the noun.

9. Have a well-marked grammar

diagrammatical analysis

Diagrammatical Analysis


What is it?

A rewriting of the text with a series of indentations which help to show grammatical relationships

diagrammatical analysis7

Diagrammatical Analysis


Why Use It?

1. It isolates the main idea in a way that can be seen at a glance.

This works best with Epistles & Psalms

2. It identifies grammatical relation-ships in a non-technical way.

3. It allows the structure of the text to drive the outline of lessons.

grammatical analysis

Grammatical Analysis


2. Dependent clauses are indented on the following line under the word they modify or placed in brackets if kept on the same line.


1. Independent clauses go to the left margin

a. Prepositional phrases, adverbial phrases, relative clauses.

b. There may be additional sub-clauses which are further indented.

grammatical analysis9

Grammatical Analysis


4. Observations and comments are placed in a different color ink in-between the lines.


3. Connectives are placed above the line they modify

5. The fewer phrases to the left the better.

6. Circle the subject, underline the main verb, and box the connective words. Vertical arrows can be used to show connections of words between lines.