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  1. C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Third Edition Chapter 1: An Overview of Computers and Programming Languages C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Third Edition

  2. Outline 1. Overview of the History of Computers. 2. Elements of a Computer System. 3. The language of a computer. 4. The Evolution of Programming Languages. 5. A C++ Program. 6. Processing a Program. 7. Analysis-Coding-Execution Cycle. 8. ANSI/ISO Standard C++. C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Third Edition

  3. Objectives In this chapter you will: • Learn about different types of computers • Explore the hardware and software components of a computer system • Learn about the language of a computer • Examine high-level programming languages C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Third Edition

  4. Objectives (continued) • Discover what a compiler is and what it does • Examine a C++ Program and explore how a C++ program is processed • Become aware of Standard C++ and ANSI/ISO Standard C++ C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Third Edition

  5. Outline 1. Overview of the History of Computers. 2. Elements of a Computer System. 3. The language of a computer. 4. The Evolution of Programming Languages. 5. A C++ Program. 6. Processing a Program. 7. Analysis-Coding-Execution Cycle. 8. ANSI/ISO Standard C++. C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Third Edition

  6. Categories of Computers • Mainframe computers • Midsize computers • Micro computers (personal computers) C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Third Edition

  7. Outline 1. Overview of the History of Computers. 2. Elements of a Computer System. 3. The language of a computer. 4. The Evolution of Programming Languages. 5. A C++ Program. 6. Processing a Program. 7. Analysis-Coding-Execution Cycle. 8. ANSI/ISO Standard C++. C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Third Edition

  8. Elements of a Computer System • Hardware • Central Processing Unit (CPU) • Main Memory • Secondary Storage • Input/ Output Devices • Software C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Third Edition

  9. Central Processing Unit (CPU) The main components of the CPU are: • Control unit (CU) • Arithmetic and logic unit (ALU). • Registers. C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Third Edition

  10. Central Processing Unit (CPU) • CU (Control Unit): • Fetches and decodes instructions • Controls flow of information in and out of MM • Controls operation of internal CPU components • ALU (arithmetic logic unit): carries out all arithmetic and logical operations C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Third Edition

  11. Central Processing Unit (CPU) 3. Registers. • PC (program counter): points to next instruction to be executed • IR (instruction register): holds instruction currently being executed C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Third Edition

  12. Main Memory • Directly connected to the CPU • All programs must be loaded into main memory before they can be executed • All data must be brought into main memory before it can be manipulated • When computer power is turned off, everything in main memory is lost C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Third Edition

  13. Secondary Storage • Secondary storage: Device that stores information permanently • Examples of secondary storage: • Hard disks • Floppy disks • Zip disks • CD-ROMs • Tapes • Flash drives C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Third Edition

  14. Input/output Devices • Input devices feed data and programs into computers. They include: • Keyboard • Mouse • Secondary storage • Output devices display results. They include: • Monitor • Printer • Secondary storage C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Third Edition

  15. Software • Software: Programs that do specific tasks 1. System programs take control of the computer, such as an operating system • Operating System monitors the overall activity of the computer and provides services. 2. Application programs perform a specific task • Word processors • Spreadsheets • Games

  16. Outline 1. Overview of the History of Computers. 2. Elements of a Computer System. 3. The language of a computer. 4. The Evolution of Programming Languages. 5. A C++ Program. 6. Processing a Program. 7. Analysis-Coding-Execution Cycle. 8. ANSI/ISO Standard C++. C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Third Edition

  17. The Language of a Computer • Digital signals are sequences of 0s and 1s • Machine language: language of a computer • Binary digit (bit): • The digit 0 or 1 • Binary code: • A sequence of 0s and 1s • Byte: • A sequence of eight bits C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Third Edition

  18. Outline 1. Overview of the History of Computers. 2. Elements of a Computer System. 3. The language of a computer. 4. The Evolution of Programming Languages. 5. A C++ Program. 6. Processing a Program. 7. Analysis-Coding-Execution Cycle. 8. ANSI/ISO Standard C++. C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Third Edition

  19. Programming Language Evolution • Early computers were programmed in machine language • To calculate wages = rates * hours in machine language: 100100 010001 //Load 100110 010010 //Multiply 100010 010011 //Store C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Third Edition

  20. Assembly Language • Assembly language instructions are mnemonic. • Mnemonic (easy-to-remember). • Assembler: translates a program written in assembly language into machine language C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Third Edition

  21. High-Level Languages • High-level languages include Basic, FORTRAN, COBOL, Pascal, C++, C, and Java • Compiler: translates a program written in a high-level language machine language • The equation wages = rate • hours can be written in C++ as: wages = rate * hours; C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Third Edition

  22. Outline 1. Overview of the History of Computers. 2. Elements of a Computer System. 3. The language of a computer. 4. The Evolution of Programming Languages. 5. A C++ Program. 6. Processing a Program. 7. Analysis-Coding-Execution Cycle. 8. ANSI/ISO Standard C++. C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Third Edition

  23. A C++ Program #include <iostream> using namespace std; int main() { cout << "My first C++ program." << endl; cout << "The sum of 2 and 3 = " << 5 << endl; cout << "7 + 8 = " << 7 + 8 << endl; return 0; } Sample Run: My first C++ program. The sum of 2 and 3 = 5 7 + 8 = 15 C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Third Edition

  24. A C++ Program cout << "My first C++ program." << endl; This is a C++ output statement. It causes the computer to evaluate the expression after the pair of symbols << and display the result in the screen. endl causes the insertion point to move to the beginning of the next line. C++ contain various types of Expressions such as arithmetic and strings. For example: 7+8 is arithmetic expression. Anything in double quotes is a string “7+8” is a string

  25. A C++ Program cout << "My first C++ program." << endl; Sample Run: My first C++ program. C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Third Edition

  26. A C++ Program cout << "The sum of 2 and 3 = " << 5 << endl; Sample Run: The sum of 2 and 3 = 5 The first expression “The sum f 2 and 3 = “ is a string and evaluates to itself . The second expression consists of Number 5 and evaluates to itself. C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Third Edition

  27. A C++ Program cout << "7 + 8 = " << 7 + 8 << endl; Sample Run: 7 + 8 = 15 The first expression “7 + 8 = “ is a string and evaluates to itself. The second expression consists of number 7 and 8, and the C++ arithmetic operator +. Therefore the result of the expression is the sum of 7 and 8 which is 15. C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Third Edition

  28. Outline 1. Overview of the History of Computers. 2. Elements of a Computer System. 3. The language of a computer. 4. The Evolution of Programming Languages. 5. A C++ Program. 6. Processing a Program. 7. Analysis-Coding-Execution Cycle. 8. ANSI/ISO Standard C++. C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Third Edition

  29. Processing a Program The following steps are necessary to process a program in C++: Step 1: Use text editor to create a C++ program. This program is called source code or source program.

  30. Processing a Program Step 2: In a C++ program, statements that begin with the symbol # are called preprocessor directives. These statements are processed by a program called preprocessor.

  31. Processing a Program Step 3: Compiler is used to: • verifies that the program obeys the rules of the programming language and checks the source program for syntax errors. • Translate the program into equivalent machine language (object program).

  32. Processing a Program Step 4: Programs in high level languages are developed using a software development kit (SDK). • SDK contains programs that are useful in creating your program such as mathematical functions. • The prewritten code resides in a library. • Linker combines the object code with the program from libraries.

  33. Processing a Program Step 5: You must load the executable program into main memory for execution. Loader: a program that loads an executable program into main memory.

  34. Processing a Program Step 6: The final step is to execute the program.

  35. Outline 1. Overview of the History of Computers. 2. Elements of a Computer System. 3. The language of a computer. 4. The Evolution of Programming Languages. 5. A C++ Program. 6. Processing a Program. 7. Analysis-Coding-Execution Cycle. 8. ANSI/ISO Standard C++. C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Third Edition

  36. Problem Solving • Programming is a process of problem solving • Problem solving techniques • Analyze the problem • Outline the problem requirements • Design steps (algorithm) to solve the problem • Algorithm: • Step-by-step problem-solving process • Solution achieved in finite amount of time C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Third Edition

  37. Problem Solving Process • Step 1 - Analyze the problem • Outline the problem and its requirements • Design steps (algorithm) to solve the problem • Step 2 - Implement the algorithm • Implement the algorithm in code • Verify that the algorithm works • Step 3 - Maintenance • Use and modify the program if the problem domain changes C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Third Edition

  38. Example Design algorithm to find the perimeter and area of a rectangle. Analyze the problem: • To find the perimeter and area of a rectangle, we need to know the rectangle’s length and width. The perimeter and area of rectangle is given by the following formula: Perimeter = 2 . (length + width) Area = length . width

  39. Example (continues) Design algorithm: • Get length of Rectangle. • Get width of Rectangle. • Find the perimeter using the following equation: Perimeter = 2 . (length + width) • Find the area using the following equation: Area = length . width

  40. Compiling and Linking • Run code through compiler • If compiler generates errors • Look at code and remove errors • Run code again through compiler • If there are no syntax errors • Compiler generates equivalent machine code • Linker links machine code with system resources C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Third Edition

  41. Outline 1. Overview of the History of Computers. 2. Elements of a Computer System. 3. The language of a computer. 4. The Evolution of Programming Languages. 5. A C++ Program. 6. Processing a Program. 7. Analysis-Coding-Execution Cycle. 8. ANSI/ISO Standard C++. C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Third Edition

  42. ANSI/ISO STANDARD C++ • C++ evolved from C • C++ designed by Bjarne Stroustrup at Bell Laboratories in early 1980s • C++ programs were not always portable from one compiler to another • In mid-1998, ANSI/ISO C++ language standards were approved C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Third Edition

  43. Summary • Computer: an electronic device that can perform arithmetic and logical operations • Computer system has hardware and software • Central processing unit (CPU): brain • Primary storage (MM) is volatile; secondary storage (e.g., disk) is permanent • Operating system monitors the overall activity of the computer and provides services C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Third Edition

  44. Summary (continued) • Various kinds of languages, such as machine language, assembly, high-level • The problem-solving process has three steps: • Analyze problem and design an algorithm • Implement the algorithm in code • Maintain the program C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Third Edition