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Calculation of wildfire Plume Rise . Bo Yan School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences Georgia Institute of Technology. Outline. Introduction Fundament of principles Calculation of plume rise of wild fire Calculation of wildfire plume rise Case study Conclusions.

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calculation of wildfire plume rise

Calculation of wildfire Plume Rise

Bo Yan

School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

Georgia Institute of Technology

outline
Outline
  • Introduction
  • Fundament of principles
  • Calculation of plume rise of wild fire
  • Calculation of wildfire plume rise
  • Case study
  • Conclusions
introduction of plume rise
Introduction of plume rise

Plume rise - the height to which a plume emitted from an elevated source will rise.

Importance: to the estimation of ambient pollutant concentration, impact on the local and distant environment.

Affected by: the initial sources conditions (exit velocity and temperature difference between the plume and the air), the stable class and stratification of the atmosphere, and the wind field.

general calculation of plume rise
General calculation of plume rise

Basic formulas of plume rise

calculation of fire plume rise
Calculation of fire-plume rise
  • Features of wild land fire plume

- can not be treated in the same sense as those stack

point sources, but usually be considered as an area

source.

- with a low initial momentum, the wildfire plume rise is

dominated by the buoyancy.

- continue near-surface release.

calculation of fire plume rise7
Calculation of fire-plume rise

Δh : the plume rise of fire plume, m

x: the downward distance,

r0: fire radius, m

K: the velocity ratio, ( )

U 10-m wind speed, m/s

β : the entrainment coefficient (β=0.6)

F : the Froude number,

w0 : the initial vertical velocity, m/s

ρ a: ambient density, kg/m3

Δρ: the initial density difference between ambient air and the fire plume. (ρa-ρp)

TP, Ta : temperature of plume and ambient respectively, K

rP: the radius of fire, m

Qh: the heat release rate, J/s

Basic equation

different cases of calculation of fire plume rise
Different cases of calculation of fire-plume rise
  • Stable conditions

Plume rise is limited by thermal stratification

Δhf is the final rise, m

N is the Brunt Vasaila frequency

different cases of calculation of fire plume rise con t
Different cases of calculation of fire-plume rise (con’t)
  • Neutral conditions

Ambient turbulence limits the final plume rise by breaking up the plume

(Briggs, 1984)

u*: friction velocity, m/s

different cases of calculation of fire plume rise con t10
Different cases of calculation of fire-plume rise (con’t)
  • Unstable conditions

Plume rise is also limited by turbulence

(Briggs, 1989; Weil, 1988)

zi : inversion height, m

w*: the convection velocity scale, m/s

case study
Case study
  • CAMx (comprehensive air quality model with extensions)

Plume characteristics:

Temperature of release

Radius of wild fire

Heat release

Exit vertical velocity

Meteorological data:

Wind speed,

Ambient temperature

Mixing height

Surface heat flux

+

Calculation of plume rise

case study con t13
Case study (con’t)

The calculation value shows that trend of plume rise with low height at night time and peak during the late afternoon

conclusions
Conclusions
  • Basic concept about plume rise was introduced; General calculation of plume rise was described;
  • Wildfire plume rise calculation was specifically discussed; Based on three conditions, calculations were modified
  • The basic theory of the plume rise model (CAMx) is limited to assumptions of uniform wind field and constant stability in the atmospheric layers.
references
References
  • Uarporn Nopmongcol. Plume rise model for Forest Fire Using ArcGIS Modeling Tool.

www.utexas.edu/gis/gishydro03/classroom/trmproj

  • Brown, et al. Fireplume model for plume dispersion from fires: Application to uranium hexafluoride cylinder fires

www.osti.gov/dublincore/gpo/servlets/purl/510554-2x6vjV

  • Seinfeld J.H. Atmospheric chemistry and physics: from air pollution to climate change. 1997