Mayer - World History - Islam and the Caliphate - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Mayer - World History - Islam and the Caliphate

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  1. The Rise of Islam and the Caliphate (600 A.D. – 1250 A.D.)

  2. What? • Islam is one of the 5 major religions of the world. We will be learning about its creation, its quick spread around Europe, Africa, and the Middle East, and the creation of a Muslim Empire. • Who? • We will be learning about the founder of the Islamic religion, the Prophet Muhammed as well as other important figures in the world of Islam. • When? • 600 A.D. – 1250 A.D. We will cover the time period from Muhammad’s birth and creation of Islam, up until the destruction of the Muslim Empire at the hand of the Mongols. • Where? • The rise and spread of Islam covers several continents including Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Middle East. We will mainly focus on the Middle East, specifically the Arabian Peninsula.

  3. WORD WALL Islam Muslim Quran Sunni Shi’ite Allah caliph caliphate pilgrimage fasting

  4. Topic 1: The Story of Muhammed and the creation of Islam (See pgs. 46 – 49 in your textbook)

  5. Learning Goal • Students will be able to recall the story of Muhammed and provide details about the beginning of the Islamic religion.

  6. Learning Scale 4 – I can tell you the entire story of the Prophet Muhammad, in detail, and give you full details about the beginning of the Islamic religion. 3 – I can tell you the entire story of the Prophet Muhammad, in detail, and give you a few details about the beginning of the Islamic religion. 2 – I can tell you the entire story of the Prophet Muhammad, but that’s all. 1 – I can’t tell you the story of the Prophet Mohammad at all, or any details about the beginning of Islam.

  7. Topic 2: The Five Pillars of Islam (See pgs. 46 – 49 in your textbook & Five Pillars Presentation)

  8. Learning Goal • Students will be able to recall the Five Pillars of Islam and describe their importance to the message of the Islamic religion.

  9. Learning Scale 4 – I can explain to you all five pillars of the Islamic religion and their huge importance to Islam and its message. 3 – I can explain to you all five pillars of the Islamic religion, but don’t fully understand their importance to Islam and its message. 2 – I can explain to you all five pillars of the Islamic religion, but I don’t understand where they fit into the message of Islam. 1 – I can’t explain any of the Five Pillars of Islam to you, I’m not even sure what they all are.

  10. Topic 3: The Teachings of Islam (See pgs. 46 – 49 in your textbook & Abrahamic Religions Presentation)

  11. Learning Goal • Students will be able to describe the basic teaching of Islam, and compare and contrast them to the other Abrahamic religions.

  12. Learning Scale 4 – I can explain to you all five pillars of the Islamic religion and their huge importance to Islam and its message. 3 – I can explain to you all five pillars of the Islamic religion, but don’t fully understand their importance to Islam and its message. 2 – I can explain to you all five pillars of the Islamic religion, but I don’t understand where they fit into the message of Islam. 1 – I can’t explain any of the Five Pillars of Islam to you, I’m not even sure what they all are.

  13. Topic 4: The Islamic Empire

  14. Learning Goal • Students will be able to identify the dynasties that rule the Islamic empire over its history and their contributions to Muslim history and society.

  15. Muhammad’s Successors • Muhammed ascends into heaven in 632. Muhammed was the undisputed leader of all Muslims in both religion and politics, but he did not choose a successor. • His close family and friends choose Abu-Bakr, one of Muahmmed’s closest advisors, to take over Muhammed's position. He is named caliph. • Creates an empire known as The Caliphate. All Muslims are members of the caliphate. Religion and government are not separate, the caliph is head of the empire and the religion at once. This type of government is known as theocracy.

  16. The Four “Rightly Guided” Caliphs (Abu-Bakr and his successors) • Abu-Bakr is extremely successful as caliph. • Converts millions of Arabs to Islam, raises a huge army, and begins to expand the caliphate. By 650, the caliphate of Abu Bakr has conquered all of the Middle East as well as modern day Iran, Egypt, and Afghanistan. • After Abu-Bakr’s death, there are a series of wars over who will rule. In eleven years, there are 3 different caliphs and all 3 are assassinated. Finally, in 661, the caliphate’s most powerful general, Mu’awiyah, overthrows the current caliph and takes over.

  17. The Umayyad Dynasty • Mu’awiyahimmediately begins to lock up control of the caliphate. He makes the caliph a hereditary title within his family. Moves the capital of the empire to his hometown of Damascus. • The Umayyads are a warlike dynasty. Mu’awiyah continues to expand the caliphate. • The family conquers east all the way into India and west through all of North Africa and into Spain. In 732, the Muslim army is finally stopped at the Battle of Tours in France. Only thing that prevents Muslims from taking over Europe and destroying Christianity. By 750, the Islamic caliphate is the largest empire in the world. • Not all Muslims are happy with the Umayyad dynasty. In 680, the grandson-in-law of the Prophet Muhammad, Hussein, tries to lead a revolt against the Umayyads. It fails and creates a permanent divide in the Muslim religion.

  18. The Sunni – Shia Split • After Muhammed ascends into heaven the Muslim community is split over his successor. • Sunni Muslims believed that his successor should be the person best fit to lead. Shia Muslims believed that only members of Muhammed’s family had the right to be caliph. Abu-Bakr was chosen instead and after him the split becomes more violent. • During the Umayyad dynasty, war breaks out between them and Muhammed’s son-in-law, Ali. Ali and his son, Hassan, are killed which leads to Hussein’s revolt. • Hussein’s defeat cements the division in Islam once and for all.

  19. The Sunni – Shia Split • Sunni – Muslims who believed that leadership of the caliphate should fall to the member of the community most capable of leadership. They supported the Umayyads during Hussein’s revolt. Sunnis make up the overwhelming majority of Muslims (around 85-90%). • Shi’ite – Muslims who believed that only members of the prophet’s family are entitled to be caliph. They followed Muhammed’s son in law Ali as the rightful caliph and fought against the Umayyad dynasty. After Hussein’s revolt they were crushed and became the minority (10-15%).

  20. The Abbasid Dynasty (The Golden Age of Islam) • Eventually the Umayyads and their warlike ways exhaust the caliphateand another group of Sunnis led by Abu al-Abbas overthrow the Umayyads and establish a new family dynasty in 750 AD. • This new Abbasid dynasty were uninterested in war. Focused on growing rich through trade and promoting education. • Trade: • Built a new capital at Baghdad. Opened new trade routes to India, China, and Europe. Baghdad takes Constantinople’s place as the trade center of the world. Abbasid dynasty becomes the wealthiest in the world.

  21. The Abbasid Dynasty (The Golden Age of Islam) • Education: • Spent huge amounts of their wealth building libraries in all major Muslimcities. • Bought thousands of Greek and Roman books and scrolls and translate them into Arabic and other languages so it can be spread around their empire. Allows Muslims everywhere to learn and expand on that knowledge. • Also, preserves that information after the fall of the Roman Empire. • Build hundreds of schools and universities. Causes a huge explosion in writing, mathematics, and science. • Muslim scholars invent algebra, create Arabic numerals, discover how germs and bacteria are transmitted, and make more discoveries in astronomy than any other time in history. There are currently over 600 stars that have Arabic names.

  22. The Abbasid Dynasty (The Golden Age of Islam) • Because of the Abbasid’s focus on learning and wealth, they allow the army to grow weak. This eventually leads to the destruction of the caliphate. • 800 AD - Muslim Spain revolts and declares itself independent from the Abbasids. • 973 AD – Muslim Egypt follows Spain. • 1055 AD - The Seljuk Turks invade from Central Asia and captured Baghdad. Allow the caliph to remain as the religious leader, but they take control over the government. • 1258 AD – The Abbasid dynasty and the Islamic Caliphate is completely destroyed by a Mongol invasion from northern China.

  23. Learning Scale 4 – I can tell you about all of the different Islamic dynasties and all about their legacy. 3 – I can tell you about all of the different Islamic dynasties and but I’m not sure what their contributions to history were. 2 – I can’t remember the names of any of the Islamic dynasties. 1 – I can’t don’t know what a dynasty is or what they have to do with Islam.