The end of the war
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The End of the War. Collapse of Germany . Started to weaken in 1918 to the point of not fighting. Kaiser abdicates throne – takes refuge German war machine/economy too exhausted to continue SO…. End of War. During the 11 th hour of the 11 th day in the 11 th month of 1918…

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The End of the War

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The End of the War


Collapse of Germany

  • Started to weaken in 1918 to the point of not fighting.

  • Kaiser abdicates throne – takes refuge

  • German war machine/economy too exhausted to continue

  • SO…..


End of War

  • During the 11th hour of the 11th day in the 11th month of 1918…

    • Germany agreed to a cease-fire that ended the war.

  • 4 year war

    • Involved more than 30 nations

    • Bloodiest war in history (to that time)

    • 26 million deaths, half were civilians

    • Cost of war = $350 billion


  • Now…What to do?

  • Have a meeting….


Treaty of Versailles

  • Leaders of Entente power all meet to discuss what should happen now that the war is over


Treaty of Versailles

  • “BigThree” gathered at the Palace of Versailles to sign the treaty.

  • Hope that the treaty would create stability for Europe (didn’t happen).


Wilson’s 14 points

  • Guideline for post war activities (main points)

    • 1) No more secret treaties 


    • 2) Countries must seek to reduce their weapons and their armed forces

    • 3) National self-determination should allow people of the same nationality to govern themselves and one nationality should not have the power to govern another 


    • 4) All countries should belong to the League of Nations.

  • Wilson’s plan didn’t pass with Allies


With the last point calling for the creation of a League of Nations. At the Paris Peace Conference in 1919, he fought hard, but was not able to incorporate his Fourteen Points in the treaty. He did, however, make sure the League of Nations was an inextricable part of the final agreement. He hoped that once the League was established, it could rectify the treaty's many shortcomings


League of Nations

  • An organization to maintain world peace!

  • Headquarters in Switzerland


Plan didn’t pass…

  • Allies thought Wilson was naïve

  • Clemenceau was determined to prevent invasions

  • George just won reelection on slogan “Make Germany Pay”

  • Orlando wants Austrian territory


Treaty of Versailles

  • Established 9 new nations

  • Shifted boundaries

    • Re-mapping

  • Carved Ottoman Empire and gave some to France and Great Britain


Treaty of Versailles – Germany

  • Demilitarized

  • Had to pay reparations to Allies

    • War damages amounting to $33 billion

  • War-Guilt Clause

    • Germany had to acknowledge that they alone were responsible for World War I.


Weaknesses of the Treaty

  • Humiliated Germany

    • War-guilt

    • $$$$

  • Bolshevik government felt ignored

    • Not invited to conference

  • Contributed to international instability


  • http://www.history.com/videos/treaty-of-versailles-end-world-war-i#treaty-of-versailles-end-world-war-i


Opposition/ Debate – Treaty/League of Nations

  • Opposition

    • In U.S. several groups opposed to treaty

    • Too harsh- will pull down Europe.

    • Didn’t establish demands for self-determination (like independence)

  • Debate

    • Over League of Nations

      • Said it threatened U.S. foreign policy of isolation

    • Henry Cabot Lodge

      • Wanted the right of Congress to declare war

      • Wanted to add “reservations” to the treaty


Legacy of War

  • Germany doesn’t really know they’ve lost

  • Germany shocked by Treaty of Versailles

  • Depression in Germany

    • No jobs

    • Currency almost worthless

  • Germany wanted someone to blame it on

    • Adolf Hitler – blames German problems on Jews and socialists

      • Rises to power (with Nazi party) in 1933 and gain control of government.


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