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Diagnostics of thermal plasma with eV-level Resolution. Manabu ISHIDA Tokyo Metropolitan University. Objectives of Plasma Diagnostic (with NeXT in particular). Measurements of physical parameters of thermal plasma. kT ~  keV

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diagnostics of thermal plasma with ev level resolution

Diagnostics of thermal plasma with eV-level Resolution


Tokyo Metropolitan University

objectives of plasma diagnostic with next in particular
Objectives of Plasma Diagnostic (with NeXT in particular)
  • Measurements of physical parameters of thermal plasma.
    • kT ~  keV
    • For better understanding of star-forming region, star, planetary nebula, supernova remnant, binary, galaxy, cluster of galaxies…
    • He(H)-like K of iron in general, of other metals from diffuse source which are inaccessible with Chandra/XMM-Newton.
    • Te TioniTZ AZne etc…
  • Bulk motion of plasma in particle-acceleration regions.
    • Geometry of the plasma surrounding a compact object.
    • Turbulence in the clusters of galaxies
    • Shock front of SNR.
    • Help understanding non-thermal universe in E > 10 keV.
iron spectrum at t max of he like k
Iron spectrum at Tmax of He-like K
  • He-like
  • resonance (r)
    • w :1P1 → 1S0
  • intercombination (i)
    • x :3P2 → 1S0
    • y :3P1 → 1S0
  • forbidden (f)
    • z :3S1 → 1S0
  • H-like
  • resonance
    • Ly1 :2P1/2→2S1/2
    • Ly2 :2P3/2→2S1/2


density diagnostics with he like triplet
Density diagnostics with He-like triplet

Ishida (1995)

Porquet et al (2001)

  • 3S1 decays through 3P2,1 if A(3S1-1S0) ~ neC(3S1-3P2,1)
  • f + i = const.
  • Caution:3S1 →3P2,1 occurs also with UV photo-excitation.
  • Resolving degeneracy between ne and V in a point source.




he like triplet as a density probe


T Tau star

Solar corona

Stellar flare

He-like triplet as a density probe

nc(Z) = 6.75 (Z-1)11.44 cm-3

Proto star

Tm(Z) = 8320 (Z-0.4)2.71 K

density measurement of ae aqr with xmm rgs
Density measurement of AE Aqr with XMM RGS
  • AE Aqr (mCV, Pspin = 33.08s, Porb = 9.88h, B = 105-6G ?)
  • ne~1011cm-3, lp = (2-3)x1010cm

Itoh et al. (2006)

what s happening in ae aqr
What’s happening in AE Aqr ?!
  • In the accretion column of mCV
  • ne~1016cm-3, lp ~107cm, whereas

ne~1011cm-3, lp = (2-3)x1010cm.

  • kT (~ GMmH/R) of AE Aqr is extremely lower than other mCVs, suggestive of intermediate release of the gravitational energy.
  • Plasma is surely accreting because we have X-ray emission, but not arriving at the white dwarf surface, diffuse in an orbit scale.
ae aqr as a magnetic propeller source
AE Aqr as a Magnetic Propeller Source
  • Steady spin down (P-dot = 5.64x10-14 s s-1) for >14 yrs.
  • TeV g-ray emission.
  • Note: no bulk velocity is detected from oxygen K.

v < 300 km s-1 (expected ~100km s-1).

  • The maximum vbulk is expected iron K.
    • Theme of the calorimeter onboard NeXT.

Wynn & King (1997)

origin of the grxe
Origin of the GRXE

Suzaku XIS


  • Thin thermal: kTmax ~ 7keV.
  • Diffuse ?
    • Ebisawa et al. (2005)
  • Ensemble of point sources ?
    • Revnivtsev et al. (2006)
    • CVs or Active Star Binaries.
  • Suzaku clearly detected 6.4keV line from the GRXE.
    • ASB
    • CV
  • Suzaku should measure spatial uniformity of intensity ratios of the iron K components.
  • Debate will be terminated if ne is measured with the NeXT calorimeter.

Thanks to S. [email protected]


he like satellite lines
He-like Satellite lines
  • Satellite lines: a series of mission lines at energies slightly lower than w.
  • More intense for larger Z, prominent for iron.
  • New information that can be accessed first by the NeXT calorimeter.
origin of the satellite lines
Origin of the Satellite Lines

0 E

  • Satellite lines of Z+z originates from ion Z+(z1).
  • Spectatorshields part of the charge of the nuclei.
    • Er > ES4 > ES3 > ES2
  • ES2is strongest and most separated from w.
  • Sn (n≧4)cannot be separated from r.
  • Satellite of H-like Koriginates from DR.
  • Satellite of He-like K
  • 1s2[sp]2p→(1s)22p: DR
  • 1s2[sp]2s→(1s)22s : DR+IE
    • DR: interaction of e- with He-like ion.
    • IE: additionally with Li-like ion.
spectrum of h like he like iron k
Spectrum of H-like/He-likeiron K
  • Number of major satellite lines with spectator n=2 is 22.
  • Spectator = 2p (DR): a, b, c, …, m, n: 14 in total.

j and k are prominent

  • Spectator = 2s (DR+IE): o, p, q, …, u, v: 8 in total.

r, q, and t are strong in ionizing plasma

t e with g x y z w vs j k w
Te with G = (x+y+z)/w vs j+k/w
  • w, j,k: all originate from interaction between an electron and a He-like ion.
  • Their intensity ratio is a function only of Te.
  • It does not matter even if NEI.
  • The intensity ratio does not depend on ne.
  • It has been claimed that G = (x+y+z)/w is a good measure of Te, however ….
  • j+k/w is much more sensitive to Te.
intensity of the satellites with t e
Intensity of the satellites with Te

kTe = 1.6keV

kTe = 3.2keV

kTe = 7.9keV

t e from j w t ioni from q t w
Te from j/w, Tioni from(q+t)/w
  • For SNR:
  • j/w: Te, (q+t)/w: net, line width: TZ, central energy: vbulk.
  • For recombining plasma
  • j/w is stronger, (q+t)/w is weaker thanthat of CIE plasma.
  • Central region of the cluster of galaxies, stellar flare, post-shock accregion flow in mCV…


boundary layer of dwarf novae
Boundary Layer of Dwarf Novae
  • Accretion onto WD takes place through an optically thick Keplerian disc (T~105K).
  • Hard X-rays are radiated from the Boundary Layer which is optically thin/geometrically thick with T~108K.
    • The rotation speed of WD at its surface is usually much smaller than vK(R*) (~5000km/s).
    • For settling down onto the white dwarf, accreting matter is decelerated from vK to v* by converting its Keplerian kinetic energy into heat.
  • Understanding of BL is not yet enough on various aspects such as size, density, geometry (2-dim or 3-dim) etc…
ss cyg with chandra hetg
SS Cyg with Chandra HETG
  • Lines are broad in Outburst.
  • If BL is like a cooling flow, the line originates in a radially falling spherical shell.
  • Line profile becomes rectangular rather than a simple broad Gaussian.
  • Need info of iron to discriminate in/out flow.
  • We need NeXT calorimeter.

Okada et al. (2006)