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Colonial America. Chapter 3. Early English Settlements. Chapter 3.1. The Spanish Armada Spain and England were close to war because of trading and religious rivalries Spain = Catholic (Philip II) England = Protestant (Queen Elizabeth) Sir Frances Drake (England) attacked ships

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Colonial america

Colonial America

Chapter 3

England in america

  • The Spanish Armada

    • Spain and England were close to war because of trading and religious rivalries

      • Spain = Catholic (Philip II)

      • England = Protestant (Queen Elizabeth)

    • Sir Frances Drake (England) attacked ships

    • Philip sent the Spanish Armada to conquer England, but failed

      • Spain’s control of the seas disappeared

England in America

England in america1

  • Lost Colony of Roanoke

    • Sir Walter Raleigh granted right to settle land for England

    • Liked Roanoke Island, off North Carolina

    • In 1587 a group led by John White settled and met natives

    • White left for more supplies in England

    • Returned three years later to an empty island

      • Croatoan carved into a tree, but no attempt to reach Croatoan island

      • Settlers never seen again!

England in America

Jamestown settlement

  • Years after the Roanoke failure, several groups sought charters from King James I

    • Charter: document granting them right to organize settlements in an area.

    • Virginia Company:

      • A group landed in Chesapeake Bay in 1607

      • Named the river James and their settlement Jamestown

      • Searching for gold and establishing trade in fish and furs

Jamestown Settlement

Jamestown settlement1

  • The Virginia Company was a joint-stock company

    • Investors bought stock (part ownership) in the company

    • Investors would either make money or lose money based on the results of the company

    • Similar to the stock market today

  • Supply and demand

    • Supply: amount of a good that you have

    • Demand: peoples’ desire for that good

    • As a business person you want high demand for your goods, and not too large of a supply.

      • Supply: the less supply of a good, the more rare it is…and more people will pay for it

      • Demand: the more demand there is, the more people will pay for it

Jamestown Settlement

Jamestown settlement2

  • Jamestown Survives…somehow

    • Conditions not good (malaria and hunger)

    • People were not making money

      • Searching for gold

      • Tried to set up trade with fur and fish

    • John Smith worked with local Natives and forced colonists to work in order to survive (Pocahontas stories not true)

      • If you don’t work, you don’t eat!

      • Jamestown struggles when he leaves (starving time)

Jamestown Settlement

Jamestown settlement3

  • Colonists finally found a way to make money…growing tobacco (thanks John Rolfe!). Things improved:

    • Better relationship with natives

    • More settlers (headright system)

    • House of Burgesses makes local laws

  • Financial troubles led to cancelled charter

    • Jamestown becomes first English colony in 1624

Jamestown Settlement

New england colonies

New England Colonies tobacco (thanks John Rolfe!). Things improved:

Chapter 3.2

Religious freedom

  • Unlike Jamestown settlers, many colonists came in search of religious freedom

  • King Henry VIII broke from Catholic Church in 1534

  • Two groups of Protestants emerge

    • Puritans: wanted to reform the church

    • Separatists: wanted to leave church and start their own

  • Separatists were persecuted against

    • Fled to Netherlands, but wanted an English lifestyle

Religious Freedom

Religious freedom1

  • The Pilgrim’s Journey religious freedom

    • Separatists considered themselves Pilgrims because their journey had a religious purpose

  • The Mayflower Compact

    • Settled in Plymouth due to weather

      • Led by William Bradford

      • Outside of Virginia Company’s territory

    • Mayflower Compact created

      • pledged loyalty to England

      • agree to obey laws passed “for the general good of the colony”

      • first step in creating a representative government

Religious Freedom

Religious freedom2

  • Help from the Native Americans religious freedom

    • Nearly half of the Pilgrims died in the first winter from malnutrition, disease, and cold

    • Squanto and Samoset helped Pilgrims in the spring

      • Showed them how to grow corn, beans, and pumpkins

      • Showed them where to hunt and fish

      • Helped create peace with the Wampanoag people and their leader, Massasoit

      • Without their help, Pilgrims likely wouldn’t have survived

Religious Freedom

New settlements

  • King Charles takes the throne in 1625 religious freedom

    • Puritans wanted to leave England

  • Massachusetts Bay Company forms in 1629

    • Charter to settle near Boston

    • John Winthrop selected as Governor

New Settlements

New settlements1

  • Growth and Government religious freedom

    • More than 15,000 Puritans went to Massachusetts during the 1630s (Great Migration)

    • Government

      • Winthrop and assistants made laws at first

      • Colonists demanded more of a role

      • Elected assembly begins

        • Male church members voted for governor and town representatives

      • Little tolerance for other beliefs

New Settlements

New settlements2

  • Connecticut and Rhode Island religious freedom

    • Puritans lack of tolerance forced many to settle elsewhere

    • Connecticut settlers adopted the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut

      • First written Constitution discussing the organization of a representative government

    • Rhode Island established by Roger Williams

      • Believed in religious tolerance (religion out of government)

      • Believed it was wrong to take land from natives

New Settlements

New settlements3

  • Conflict with Native Americans religious freedom

    • Many settlements were on Native American land, which led to conflict

    • King Philip’s War

      • Metacomet, Chief of the Wampanoag, organized rebellion against colonists

      • Colonists were victorious, destroyed much of the natives’ power in the area

        • Colonists have the freedom to expand in new lands

New Settlements

Middle colonies

Middle Colonies religious freedom

Chapter 3.3

England and the colonies

England and the Colonies

England and the colonies1

  • England Takes Over in Parliament

    • New Amsterdam becomes a target for England

      • Already owned by Dutch

      • Great port and rivers for trade

      • 1664: fleet of English ships take over New Amsterdam

    • Duke of York (Charles’ brother) given land and complete control

      • Colony thrives

England and the Colonies

England and the colonies2

  • New Jersey in Parliament

    • Duke of York gives southern portion of his colony to Lord John Berkeley and Sir George Carteret

      • Name it New Jersey

      • Proprietors of the land: complete control

    • To attract settlers they promised:

      • Freedom of religion

      • Trial by jury

      • Representative assembly (in charge of taxes and laws)

    • No natural ports = no big profits

England and the Colonies


  • William Penn given land as payment for a debt in Parliament

  • Saw Pennsylvania as a chance to spread Quaker beliefs:

    • Everyone is equal

    • Pacifists

    • “inner light” to salvation

  • Philadelphia established on Native American land, but paid for

  • Quakers also known as Society of Friends

  • Charter of Liberties (1701) gave people the right to elect representatives


Southern colonies

Southern Colonies in Parliament

Chapter 3.4

Maryland and virginia

  • As plantations grew, so did the need for workers in Parliament

  • People sent over to work included:

    • Criminals: could earn a release after seven years

    • Slaves: African prisoners of war sold to European slave traders

    • Indentured servants: worked without pay for a set amount of time in order to get to colonies

Maryland and Virginia

Maryland and virginia1

  • Establishing Maryland in Parliament

    • Sir George Calvert (Lord Baltimore) wanted to establish Maryland as a safe place for Catholics

    • Estates given to numerous people, population grew

    • Conflict with Penn over boundary led to the Mason Dixon Line

    • Protestants outnumber the Catholics and take control

      • Catholics face the same restrictions they did in England

Maryland and Virginia

Maryland and virginia2

  • Bacon’s Rebellion in Parliament

    • Virginia’s growth led to a deal with Native Americans (chunk of land given to colonists and colonists won’t expand west)

    • Nathaniel Bacon opposed the deal

      • Leads rebellion against natives and Jamestown rulers

      • Exiled William Berkeley, as leader, for a brief bit

    • Bacon’s sudden death stopped complete take over, and things returned to normal

    • Rebellion showed that colonists would not settle for staying along the coast

Maryland and Virginia

Carolinas and georgia

  • Northern and Southern Carolina in Parliament

    • Two colonies form after a split in philosophy

    • Both colonies created for profit:

      • North: tobacco, timber, and tar (used Virginia harbor)

      • South: deerskin, lumber, and beef

      • Two dominant crops for both:

        • Rice (which led to more slaves)

        • Indigo

Carolinas and Georgia

Carolinas and georgia1

  • Georgia in Parliament

    • James Oglethorpe given a charter to start a colony in the south for two purposes:

      • Debtors get a fresh start

      • Protection from Spain

    • Things did not go according to plan:

      • Very poor people came in large amounts

      • People hated Oglethorpe’s rules

Carolinas and Georgia