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Colonial America. Chapter 3. Early English Settlements. Chapter 3.1. The Spanish Armada Spain and England were close to war because of trading and religious rivalries Spain = Catholic (Philip II) England = Protestant (Queen Elizabeth) Sir Frances Drake (England) attacked ships

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Colonial america

Colonial America

Chapter 3


Early english settlements

Early English Settlements

Chapter 3.1


England in america

  • The Spanish Armada

    • Spain and England were close to war because of trading and religious rivalries

      • Spain = Catholic (Philip II)

      • England = Protestant (Queen Elizabeth)

    • Sir Frances Drake (England) attacked ships

    • Philip sent the Spanish Armada to conquer England, but failed

      • Spain’s control of the seas disappeared

England in America


England in america1

  • Lost Colony of Roanoke

    • Sir Walter Raleigh granted right to settle land for England

    • Liked Roanoke Island, off North Carolina

    • In 1587 a group led by John White settled and met natives

    • White left for more supplies in England

    • Returned three years later to an empty island

      • Croatoan carved into a tree, but no attempt to reach Croatoan island

      • Settlers never seen again!

England in America


Jamestown settlement

  • Years after the Roanoke failure, several groups sought charters from King James I

    • Charter: document granting them right to organize settlements in an area.

    • Virginia Company:

      • A group landed in Chesapeake Bay in 1607

      • Named the river James and their settlement Jamestown

      • Searching for gold and establishing trade in fish and furs

Jamestown Settlement


Jamestown settlement1

  • The Virginia Company was a joint-stock company

    • Investors bought stock (part ownership) in the company

    • Investors would either make money or lose money based on the results of the company

    • Similar to the stock market today

  • Supply and demand

    • Supply: amount of a good that you have

    • Demand: peoples’ desire for that good

    • As a business person you want high demand for your goods, and not too large of a supply.

      • Supply: the less supply of a good, the more rare it is…and more people will pay for it

      • Demand: the more demand there is, the more people will pay for it

Jamestown Settlement


Jamestown settlement2

  • Jamestown Survives…somehow

    • Conditions not good (malaria and hunger)

    • People were not making money

      • Searching for gold

      • Tried to set up trade with fur and fish

    • John Smith worked with local Natives and forced colonists to work in order to survive (Pocahontas stories not true)

      • If you don’t work, you don’t eat!

      • Jamestown struggles when he leaves (starving time)

Jamestown Settlement


Jamestown settlement3

  • Colonists finally found a way to make money…growing tobacco (thanks John Rolfe!). Things improved:

    • Better relationship with natives

    • More settlers (headright system)

    • House of Burgesses makes local laws

  • Financial troubles led to cancelled charter

    • Jamestown becomes first English colony in 1624

Jamestown Settlement


New england colonies

New England Colonies

Chapter 3.2


Religious freedom

  • Unlike Jamestown settlers, many colonists came in search of religious freedom

  • King Henry VIII broke from Catholic Church in 1534

  • Two groups of Protestants emerge

    • Puritans: wanted to reform the church

    • Separatists: wanted to leave church and start their own

  • Separatists were persecuted against

    • Fled to Netherlands, but wanted an English lifestyle

Religious Freedom


Religious freedom1

  • The Pilgrim’s Journey

    • Separatists considered themselves Pilgrims because their journey had a religious purpose

  • The Mayflower Compact

    • Settled in Plymouth due to weather

      • Led by William Bradford

      • Outside of Virginia Company’s territory

    • Mayflower Compact created

      • pledged loyalty to England

      • agree to obey laws passed “for the general good of the colony”

      • first step in creating a representative government

Religious Freedom


Religious freedom2

  • Help from the Native Americans

    • Nearly half of the Pilgrims died in the first winter from malnutrition, disease, and cold

    • Squanto and Samoset helped Pilgrims in the spring

      • Showed them how to grow corn, beans, and pumpkins

      • Showed them where to hunt and fish

      • Helped create peace with the Wampanoag people and their leader, Massasoit

      • Without their help, Pilgrims likely wouldn’t have survived

Religious Freedom


New settlements

  • King Charles takes the throne in 1625

    • Puritans wanted to leave England

  • Massachusetts Bay Company forms in 1629

    • Charter to settle near Boston

    • John Winthrop selected as Governor

New Settlements


New settlements1

  • Growth and Government

    • More than 15,000 Puritans went to Massachusetts during the 1630s (Great Migration)

    • Government

      • Winthrop and assistants made laws at first

      • Colonists demanded more of a role

      • Elected assembly begins

        • Male church members voted for governor and town representatives

      • Little tolerance for other beliefs

New Settlements


New settlements2

  • Connecticut and Rhode Island

    • Puritans lack of tolerance forced many to settle elsewhere

    • Connecticut settlers adopted the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut

      • First written Constitution discussing the organization of a representative government

    • Rhode Island established by Roger Williams

      • Believed in religious tolerance (religion out of government)

      • Believed it was wrong to take land from natives

New Settlements


New settlements3

  • Conflict with Native Americans

    • Many settlements were on Native American land, which led to conflict

    • King Philip’s War

      • Metacomet, Chief of the Wampanoag, organized rebellion against colonists

      • Colonists were victorious, destroyed much of the natives’ power in the area

        • Colonists have the freedom to expand in new lands

New Settlements


Middle colonies

Middle Colonies

Chapter 3.3


England and the colonies

  • Oliver Cromwell leads groups of Puritans seeking more power in Parliament

  • Takes over the government in 1649

  • Wants new land for England between the colonies they already own

  • Middle colonies become the most ethnically diverse set of colonies

England and the Colonies


England and the colonies1

  • England Takes Over

    • New Amsterdam becomes a target for England

      • Already owned by Dutch

      • Great port and rivers for trade

      • 1664: fleet of English ships take over New Amsterdam

    • Duke of York (Charles’ brother) given land and complete control

      • Colony thrives

England and the Colonies


England and the colonies2

  • New Jersey

    • Duke of York gives southern portion of his colony to Lord John Berkeley and Sir George Carteret

      • Name it New Jersey

      • Proprietors of the land: complete control

    • To attract settlers they promised:

      • Freedom of religion

      • Trial by jury

      • Representative assembly (in charge of taxes and laws)

    • No natural ports = no big profits

England and the Colonies


Pennsylvania

  • William Penn given land as payment for a debt

  • Saw Pennsylvania as a chance to spread Quaker beliefs:

    • Everyone is equal

    • Pacifists

    • “inner light” to salvation

  • Philadelphia established on Native American land, but paid for

  • Quakers also known as Society of Friends

  • Charter of Liberties (1701) gave people the right to elect representatives

Pennsylvania


Southern colonies

Southern Colonies

Chapter 3.4


Maryland and virginia

  • As plantations grew, so did the need for workers

  • People sent over to work included:

    • Criminals: could earn a release after seven years

    • Slaves: African prisoners of war sold to European slave traders

    • Indentured servants: worked without pay for a set amount of time in order to get to colonies

Maryland and Virginia


Maryland and virginia1

  • Establishing Maryland

    • Sir George Calvert (Lord Baltimore) wanted to establish Maryland as a safe place for Catholics

    • Estates given to numerous people, population grew

    • Conflict with Penn over boundary led to the Mason Dixon Line

    • Protestants outnumber the Catholics and take control

      • Catholics face the same restrictions they did in England

Maryland and Virginia


Maryland and virginia2

  • Bacon’s Rebellion

    • Virginia’s growth led to a deal with Native Americans (chunk of land given to colonists and colonists won’t expand west)

    • Nathaniel Bacon opposed the deal

      • Leads rebellion against natives and Jamestown rulers

      • Exiled William Berkeley, as leader, for a brief bit

    • Bacon’s sudden death stopped complete take over, and things returned to normal

    • Rebellion showed that colonists would not settle for staying along the coast

Maryland and Virginia


Carolinas and georgia

  • Northern and Southern Carolina

    • Two colonies form after a split in philosophy

    • Both colonies created for profit:

      • North: tobacco, timber, and tar (used Virginia harbor)

      • South: deerskin, lumber, and beef

      • Two dominant crops for both:

        • Rice (which led to more slaves)

        • Indigo

Carolinas and Georgia


Carolinas and georgia1

  • Georgia

    • James Oglethorpe given a charter to start a colony in the south for two purposes:

      • Debtors get a fresh start

      • Protection from Spain

    • Things did not go according to plan:

      • Very poor people came in large amounts

      • People hated Oglethorpe’s rules

Carolinas and Georgia


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