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Colonial America. 1587-1770. The Early English Settlements. Essential Question: Why did the English settle in North America?. The Early English Settlements. Main Idea After defeating the Spanish Armada, England became more and more interested in establishing colonies in North America.

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Colonial america

Colonial America

1587-1770


The early english settlements

The Early English Settlements

  • Essential Question:

    • Why did the English settle in North America?


The early english settlements1

The Early English Settlements

  • Main Idea

    • After defeating the Spanish Armada, England became more and more interested in establishing colonies in North America.


Lost colony of roanoke

Lost Colony of Roanoke

1584 – Sir Walter Raleigh claims Roanoke Island for Queen Elizabeth

1587 – Raleigh sends John White, 91 men, 17 women and 9 children to Roanoke

When English ships return 3 years later, all Colonists have disappeared


The lost colony of roanoke

The Lost Colony of Roanoke


Lost colony of roanoke1

Lost Colony of Roanoke

For a time, the failure of the Roanoke colony discouraged others from planning English colonies in North America

However, the idea emerged again in 1606.

Several groups of merchants sought charters, documents granting the right to organize settlements in an area, from King James I.


The virginia company

The Virginia Company

Joint Stock Company

Investors bought stock, or part ownership, in the company in return for a share of its future

Settlers in America were to search for gold and establish trade in fish and furs

1607 – 144 settlers entered Chesapeake Bay and name their new settlement Jamestown


Jamestown

Jamestown


Jamestown survives

Jamestown Survives

  • Colonists faced hardships of disease and hunger

  • Colony survives the first 2 years because of 27 year old Captain John Smith

    • Experienced explorer

    • Forced settlers to work

    • Sought corn from Native Americans led by chief Powahatan


Colonial america

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Jamestown1

Jamestown

  • Winter of 1606-1610 known as “the starving time”

  • Fighting breaks out with Native Americans

  • Finally, colonists begin to make money for investors by growing tobacco

  • Relations with Native Americas improve when John Rolfe marries Pocahontas, daughter of Chief Powahatan


Jamestown2

Jamestown


The house of burgesses

The House of Burgesses

Virginia Colony government

Burgesses meet to make local laws for the colony

1619 – First meeting of the House of Burgesses

1624 – King James cancels the Virginia Company charter and makes Jamestown the first royal colony in America.


Colonial america

  • Why did the English settle in North America?

    • They hoped to profit from resources found in America


New england colonies

New England Colonies

  • Essential Question:

    • Why did the Separatists and Puritans leave England and settle in North America?

    • Read passage in notes!


The pilgrims journey

The Pilgrims’ Journey

  • Some Separatists in the Netherlands made an arrangement with the Virginia Company

    • Separatists could settle in Virginia and practice their religion freely

    • In return, they would give the company a share of their profits

  • Only 35 of 102 passengers on board the Mayflower in 1620 were Pilgrims


The mayflower compact

The Mayflower Compact

  • Colonists on Mayflower drop anchor in Cape Cod Bay

  • Before going ashore, the Pilgrims drew up a formal document

    • Pledged their loyalty to England

    • Necessary step in the development of representative government in the new American colonies


Mayflower compact

Mayflower Compact

Read and complete questions that follow.


Help from the native americans

Help From the Native Americans

  • First winter in America – Nearly ½ the Pilgrims die of malnutrition, disease and cold

  • Spring – the befriend two Native Americans (Squanto and Samoset)

    • Showed pilgrims how to grow corn, beans and pumpkins

    • Helped them to make peace with Wampanoag

    • The two groups lived in harmony


New settlements new england colonies

New Settlements: New England Colonies

In 1625, Charles I became the king of England. Charles objected to the Puritans’ calls for reform in the Anglican Church. Persecution of Puritans within the country increased. As a result, some Puritans wanted to leave England.


Massachusetts

Massachusetts

Founded by Massachusetts Bay Company

Governor John Winthrop

Puritans chance to create a new society based on the Bible


Massachusetts growth and government

Massachusetts Growth and Government

1630s – more than 15,000 Puritans journeyed to Massachusetts to escape religious persecution and economic hard times in England

At first, John Winthrop and the colony’s stock holders known as “The General Court” made the laws


Massachusetts growth and government1

Massachusetts Growth and Government

  • 1634 – Settlers demanded a bigger role in government

  • The General Court became an elected assembly

  • Adult male church members were allowed to vote for the governor and for representatives

    • What does this tell you about their society?


Massachusetts1

Massachusetts

Puritans came to America to put their religious beliefs into practice. However, they had littler toleration for other religious beliefs. They criticized and persecuted people of other faiths. This lack of toleration led people to form new colonies in neighboring areas.


Connecticut

Connecticut

  • Dissatisfied with the way the Massachusetts Colony was run, the towns of Hartford, Windsor and Wethersfield were established in the Connecticut wilderness

  • They adopted a plan called the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut

    • First written constitution in America

    • Described the organization of representative government in detail


Rhode island

Rhode Island

Founded by Roger Williams who believed in religious toleration and believed it was wrong to take land from Native Americans

Received charter for Rhode Island in 1644

First place in America where people of all faiths could worship freely (including Jews!)


Conflict with native americans

Conflict with Native Americans

Settlers move onto Native American land without payment or permission

English settlers and the Native Americans compete fiercely for land throughout entire period

Eventually, settlers and their Native Americans allies defeat the Wampanoag

Now the colonists are free to expand their settlements


Making connections

Making Connections

  • What did the Mayflower Compact and the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut have in common?

    • Both provided organization in the form of gov’t

  • Why did the Separatists and Puritans leave England and settle in N. America?

    • Separatists: Escape persecution but maintain their religious values and English way of life

    • Puritans: Escape persecution and establish a new society based on their religious beliefs.


Middle colonies

Middle Colonies

  • Essential Question

    • How did the Middle Colonies develop?


England s colonies

England’s Colonies

  • 1660 – England has two clusters of colonies in America

    • North: Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Connecticut, Rhode Island

    • South: Maryland and Virginia

    • Between the two groups was land controlled by the Dutch


Dutch

Dutch

Main settlement of New Amsterdam on Manhattan Island

Center of trade and shipping due to its seaport

Dutch East India Company offers large estates to anyone bringing at least 50 settlers to New Netherland

Why do you think New Netherland, later New York, was a valuable colony?


England takes over

England Takes Over

English want to acquire the valuable Dutch colony of New Netherland

1664 – English fleet attacks New Amsterdam

Unprepared Dutch governor surrenders the colony quickly

English King Charles II gives colony to the Duke of York


New york colony

New York Colony

  • Proprietary Colony

    • Proprietor owns all land

    • Proprietor controls government

  • New York has a diverse population

    • German, Dutch, Swedish, Native American, Jewish


New jersey

New Jersey

  • Proprietors Lord John Berkley and Sir George Cateret wanted to attract settlers. They offered

    • Large tracts of land

    • Freedom of religion

    • Trial by jury

    • Representative Assembly

  • Ethnically and religiously diverse

  • With no major ports, it was difficult for proprietors to make money


Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania

If given a choice, would you take land or money for a debt that someone owed you? Why?

1681 – William Penn, a wealthy English Quaker, received land as payment for a debt owed by King Charles II

William Penn saw Pennsylvania as a chance to put his Quaker ideals into practice


Quaker

Quaker

“Society of Friends”

Believed everyone was equal

People could follow their own “inner light” to salvation

Pacifists

Considered a threat in England and were persecuted


Delaware

Delaware

Swedes had settled in Southern Pennsylvania before English took over

Charter of Privileges allowed these lower counties to form their own legislature

These counties operated as a separate colony under Pennsylvania’s governor


Essential question

Essential Question

  • Answer the Essential Question

    • How did the Middle Colonies develop?

    • NY: Thriving Dutch colony seized by the English; Major port; Proprietary Colony, Diverse population

    • NJ: Land and freedom offered to attract settlers; Diverse population; lacked major port so less profitable; Became royal colony

    • PA: Established under Quaker ideals; Welcomed diverse immigrants; Constitution; elected legislature

    • Delaware: lower part of VA; settled by Swedes; Allowed to function as separate colony


Southern colonies

Southern Colonies

  • Essential Question

    • How and why did the Southern Colonies grow?


Establishing maryland

Establishing Maryland

Sir George Calavert, Lord Baltimore wanted a safe place for his fellow Catholics

King Charles I gave him a proprietary colony north of Virginia

Calavert dies, his son Cecilius inherits the colony and sends his two brothers to Maryland in 1634


Maryland

Enslaved People in the Colonies

Maryland

Cecilius gave large estates to English aristocrats

As the number of plantations grew, more workers were needed

The colony imported indentured servants and enslaved Africans

Enslaved people in the Colonies


Bacon s rebellion

Bacon’s Rebellion

  • While other colonies were being founded, Virginia continued to grow

  • Settlers moved west and settled Native American lands

  • 1640s – Virginia governor, William Berkley made a pledge with the Native Americans to avoid conflict

    • Native Americans gave Berkley large piece of land

    • Berkley would keep settlers from pushing farther into their territory

    • Showed that settlers would not be limited to the coast.


Bacon s rebellion1

Bacon’s Rebellion

Bacons army marches to Jamestown and drives Berkley into exile

1676: Nathaniel Bacon, a young planter in western Virginia, led attacks on Native American villages

1640s: Berkley makes pledge with Native Americans to avoid conflict

England recalled Berkley and sent troops to Virginia to restore order

October 1676: Bacon dies suddenly

Some western Virginians resent Berkley’s agreement to stay out.


The carolinas and georgia

The Carolinas and Georgia

In 1633, King Charles II created a proprietary colony south of Virginia called Carolina. The king gave the colony to eight nobles who had helped him regain his throne. The proprietors set up estates and sold or rented land to settlers brought from England.


Northern carolina

Northern Carolina

Grew tobacco, sold timber and tar

Lacked a good harbor

Used Virginia’s ports to conduct trade


Southern carolina

Southern Carolina

Fertile farmland

Harbor at Charles Town (Charleston)

Trade in deerskin, lumber and beef thrived


Northern and southern carolina

Northern and Southern Carolina

  • Two crops came to dominate Carolina agriculture

    • Rice

    • Indigo

  • 1719 – Settlers in Southern Carolina seized control from its proprietors

  • 1729 – Carolina became two royal colonies – North and South Carolina


Georgia

Georgia

Founded in 1733 by James Oglethorpe

Intended as a colony where debtors or poor people could make a fresh start

Also set up as a barrier to Spanish Florida

Settled by hundreds of poor British, religious refugees from Central Europe and a small group of Jews

Oglethorpe give colony to king in 1751


Making connections1

Making Connections

  • Who was John Locke and what did he do for Carolina?

    • English philosopher who wrote Carolina’s constitution

  • Why did demand for enslaved workers increase in the Southern colonies?

    • The number of plantations increased as more settlers arrived, increasing the need for a cheap source of permanent labor


Answer the essential question

Answer the Essential Question

  • How and why did the Southern colonies grow?

    • Use chart in notes


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