Colonial America. 1587-1770. The Early English Settlements. Essential Question: Why did the English settle in North America?. The Early English Settlements. Main Idea After defeating the Spanish Armada, England became more and more interested in establishing colonies in North America.
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1584 – Sir Walter Raleigh claims Roanoke Island for Queen Elizabeth
1587 – Raleigh sends John White, 91 men, 17 women and 9 children to Roanoke
When English ships return 3 years later, all Colonists have disappeared
For a time, the failure of the Roanoke colony discouraged others from planning English colonies in North America
However, the idea emerged again in 1606.
Several groups of merchants sought charters, documents granting the right to organize settlements in an area, from King James I.
Joint Stock Company
Investors bought stock, or part ownership, in the company in return for a share of its future
Settlers in America were to search for gold and establish trade in fish and furs
1607 – 144 settlers entered Chesapeake Bay and name their new settlement Jamestown
Virginia Colony government
Burgesses meet to make local laws for the colony
1619 – First meeting of the House of Burgesses
1624 – King James cancels the Virginia Company charter and makes Jamestown the first royal colony in America.
Read and complete questions that follow.
In 1625, Charles I became the king of England. Charles objected to the Puritans’ calls for reform in the Anglican Church. Persecution of Puritans within the country increased. As a result, some Puritans wanted to leave England.
Founded by Massachusetts Bay Company
Governor John Winthrop
Puritans chance to create a new society based on the Bible
1630s – more than 15,000 Puritans journeyed to Massachusetts to escape religious persecution and economic hard times in England
At first, John Winthrop and the colony’s stock holders known as “The General Court” made the laws
Puritans came to America to put their religious beliefs into practice. However, they had littler toleration for other religious beliefs. They criticized and persecuted people of other faiths. This lack of toleration led people to form new colonies in neighboring areas.
Founded by Roger Williams who believed in religious toleration and believed it was wrong to take land from Native Americans
Received charter for Rhode Island in 1644
First place in America where people of all faiths could worship freely (including Jews!)
Settlers move onto Native American land without payment or permission
English settlers and the Native Americans compete fiercely for land throughout entire period
Eventually, settlers and their Native Americans allies defeat the Wampanoag
Now the colonists are free to expand their settlements
Main settlement of New Amsterdam on Manhattan Island
Center of trade and shipping due to its seaport
Dutch East India Company offers large estates to anyone bringing at least 50 settlers to New Netherland
Why do you think New Netherland, later New York, was a valuable colony?
English want to acquire the valuable Dutch colony of New Netherland
1664 – English fleet attacks New Amsterdam
Unprepared Dutch governor surrenders the colony quickly
English King Charles II gives colony to the Duke of York
If given a choice, would you take land or money for a debt that someone owed you? Why?
1681 – William Penn, a wealthy English Quaker, received land as payment for a debt owed by King Charles II
William Penn saw Pennsylvania as a chance to put his Quaker ideals into practice
“Society of Friends”
Believed everyone was equal
People could follow their own “inner light” to salvation
Considered a threat in England and were persecuted
Swedes had settled in Southern Pennsylvania before English took over
Charter of Privileges allowed these lower counties to form their own legislature
These counties operated as a separate colony under Pennsylvania’s governor
Sir George Calavert, Lord Baltimore wanted a safe place for his fellow Catholics
King Charles I gave him a proprietary colony north of Virginia
Calavert dies, his son Cecilius inherits the colony and sends his two brothers to Maryland in 1634
Enslaved People in the Colonies
Cecilius gave large estates to English aristocrats
As the number of plantations grew, more workers were needed
The colony imported indentured servants and enslaved Africans
Enslaved people in the Colonies
Bacons army marches to Jamestown and drives Berkley into exile
1676: Nathaniel Bacon, a young planter in western Virginia, led attacks on Native American villages
1640s: Berkley makes pledge with Native Americans to avoid conflict
England recalled Berkley and sent troops to Virginia to restore order
October 1676: Bacon dies suddenly
Some western Virginians resent Berkley’s agreement to stay out.
In 1633, King Charles II created a proprietary colony south of Virginia called Carolina. The king gave the colony to eight nobles who had helped him regain his throne. The proprietors set up estates and sold or rented land to settlers brought from England.
Grew tobacco, sold timber and tar
Lacked a good harbor
Used Virginia’s ports to conduct trade
Harbor at Charles Town (Charleston)
Trade in deerskin, lumber and beef thrived
Founded in 1733 by James Oglethorpe
Intended as a colony where debtors or poor people could make a fresh start
Also set up as a barrier to Spanish Florida
Settled by hundreds of poor British, religious refugees from Central Europe and a small group of Jews
Oglethorpe give colony to king in 1751