Colonial america
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Colonial America . Seventeenth Century and Early Eighteenth Centuries…. Colonial America- Jamestown . Colonies established primarily for economic and/ or religious reasons. 1607 England’s 2 nd attempt at settling in North America- Jamestown for economic reasons.

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Colonial America

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Colonial America

Seventeenth Century and Early Eighteenth Centuries…


Colonial America- Jamestown

  • Colonies established primarily for economic and/ or religious reasons.

  • 1607 England’s 2nd attempt at settling in North America- Jamestown for economic reasons.

    *joint stock company; Virginia Company.

    *many came searching for gold. “not available- fool’s gold”.

    *settlers typically not “equipped” (physically and literally).

    *helped by Native Americans of the Powhatan Confederacy.

    *Jamestown only survived because ships kept arriving with new colonists.

    *John Smith- “he who will not work shall not eat”.


Continued

  • Winter 1609-1610 ; Starving Time

  • John Rolfe

    *Married Pocahontas

    *Tobacco pioneer (eventually leads settlement projection in Virginia as well as plantation slavery – cause and effect, prior knowledge!)

    *Brings in new settlements around Jamestown  Chesapeake colonies (Virginia and Maryland)

    *those who migrated did so for financial reasons

    *indentured servitude (75% out of 130,000)

    *headright system (1618) ; 50 acres in land grants and basis of “power in the hands of a small & wealthy group.

    *House of Burgesses (1619) first REPRESENTATIVE government in America. Granted suffrage to property owning white males


The French in North America (relevant side note)….

  • 1608; Quebec

  • French Jesuit priests attempted to convert natives to Roman Catholicism

  • More likely to spread diseases

  • Tried to colonize as much land as possible

  • Find Asia

  • Mostly single men who intermarried with natives

  • Stayed on the move coureurs du bois (runners in the wood)

  • Fur Trade

  • Relevance: French Indian War aka 7 Years War (1754-1763)… stay tuned! (cause and effect- prior knowledge)


Colonial America- Massachusetts Bay Colony; The Pilgrims

  • (16th Century) Puritanism in England  persecution look for a place to practice their faith  New World!

  • Separatists; completely abandoned the Church of England

  • (Mayflower. 1620) Set sail for Virginia but accidently land in Plymouth, Massachusetts.

  • Travelers – Pilgrims sign the Mayflower Compact

    *government’s power comes from the CONSENT of the

    governed, not from God.

    *Absolutists

  • Also received help from Native Americans- Squanto

  • (1629) Massachusetts Bay colony established

    *Congregationalists

    * (1629-1642) Great Puritan Migration


Massachusetts Bay Colony, Continued…

  • Governor John Winthrop

    * Calvinist ideals/ principles

    * City upon a hill

    * Puritan ideals

    *Government was to be a covenant among people, work must serve a communal ideal and Puritan ideals should always be followed and the church served.

    *Ironically, no room for religious tolerance

    *Religious intolerance actually led to the founding of other colonies…(Cause and effect)


Continued. Religious Intolerance (effect)

  • Salem Bay minister Roger Williams- challenged Puritan’s authority. (Separation of Church and State)

    *Williams banished.

    * Starts Rhode Island

  • Anne Hutchinson – questioned/ challenged religious authority (heresy). God’s grace would be enough to earn a place among the elect (not legalism).

    * Tried and convicted

    * banished….to Rhode Island


Continued… *Puritan Immigration to New England *Chesapeake v New England

  • Comes to a standstill (1649-1660)

    *Oliver Cromwell’s rule in England

    *English Civil Wars

    *Death of Cromwell (1658)

    *Stuarts reign again (1660)

    *Republican Ideals (cause and effect)

  • New England: families, longer life-span, community, more religious (meetinghouses)

  • Chesapeake: single men, tobacco/climate- shorter life span, lonelier, less religious.


Other ColoniesProprietorships

  • Population in Massachusetts grows, start looking for new places to settle.

  • Connecticut Valley Pequot War

  • Many colonies were proprietorships (gifts from the King hence owned by one person). Eventually leads to rebellion. Revolution ideologies? (cause & effect, prior knowledge)

  • Connecticut (1635) Fundamental Orders

  • Maryland (Lord Baltimore)  haven for Catholics profit from tobacco  religious tolerance (Protestants vs Catholics Act of Toleration (1649)


Continued...

  • New York- gift from the King to his brother, James

    *1664 Charles II wages ware on the Dutch (original populates but posed economic threat to G.B)

    * James becomes Duke of York

    * (1685) becomes King  N.Y a royal colony.

  • New Jersey – sold off to Quaker investors.

  • Pennsylvania (Quaker’s own colony)

    *William Penn (Quaker)

    • Good friends with Charles II Charles II saw Quakers as radicals.

    • Liberal Policies regarding religion (tolerance)

    • Better treatment toward Native Americans

    • One of the fastest growing colonies

    • Backlash

    • Penn’s deal with the Natives.


* Proprietary Continued… * Slavery

  • Carolinas

  • (1729) Split – N & S Carolina

  • North Carolina- (Virginia)

  • South Carolina- (Englishmen- Barbados- African Slavery)

    ------------------------------------------------

  • African American Slavery (cause)

    • Native American slaves- difficult

    • African Americans did not know the land

    • Language barriers

    • Easier to identify

    • (1790) 750,000 blacks enslaved

    • Middle Passage- Triangular Trade Route (conditions) Transatlantic Slave Trade (1808) (cause and effect/ prior knowledge)

    • Thrived in the South- Labor intensive work (tobacco & rice)

    • North- Farms (NY & NJ), house servants


Salutary Neglect & Regulation of Colonial Trade

  • G.B did not quite interfere with colonist affairs

    • Autonomy rhetoric (self rule) Road to Revolution? (cause & effect, prior knowledge)

    • America develops it’s own culture

    • Period lasts until French Indian War (1750)

      --------------------------------------------------------------------

    • English Regulation on Colonial Trade

      • Mercantilism – Specie

      • Encouraged manufacturing in England  protective tariff

      • Navigation Acts (1651-1673)- smuggling

      • Attempts to strengthen act: vice-admiralty courts (no jury)

      • Entirely dependent on England, no uprising.


Colonial Government

  • Large self-government rhetoric/ ideology

  • Every colony had a governor

  • Legislature

  • Highly dependent on the cooperation o f the colonist.

  • Efforts to centralize government (by the colonists): New England Confederation (typically dealt with small issues, settled disputes).


Notable Events

  • Bacon’s Rebellion (1676): Class resentment.

    • Nathanial Bacon vs. Governor Berkeley

    • Western settlers facing Native American attacks

    • Jamestown didn’t want to risk full scale war

    • Lashed out at Natives anyway

    • Burn down Jamestown

    • Ends with Bacon’s death

      ------------------------------------------------------------------------

    • King Phillip’s War

      • Wampanoags led by “King Phillip”

      • End of Native American presence New England.


Notable Events, Continued…

  • Stono Uprising (1739)- first, one of the most successful slave uprisings.

    • Restrictive laws to govern slave behavior.

      -----------------------------------------------------------------------------

    • Salem Witch Trials (1692)

      • Over 130 “Witches” executed or sent to jail

      • Reasons: some say it was a “battle of the classes”

      • Or paranoia may have been a result of recent attempts of absolute rule. (Dominion of New England)

      • Glorious Revolution  suffrage to all Protestants (Puritans paranoid would weaken their religion).  Halfway Covenant


Great Awakening (1730s-1740s)

  • Religion dies down in colonies early 1700s

  • Attempt to rekindle spirit of Puritanism

  • If we could make religious decisions on our own, we can also make political decisions on our own!

  • Jonathan Edwards & George Whitefield

    • Edwards:

    • Influenced by Enlightenment (Ben Franklin- Poor Man’s Almanack)

    • “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God”.

    • Very graphic depictions of hell

    • Damnation of those not “awakened” to true religion (Calvanism)

    • Whitefield:

    • Evangelical (traveled the colonies)

    • Former actor with great speaking skills; Attracted over 6,000

    • Based on Emotionalism and Spiritualism


Life in the Colonies

  • Rate of growth; 1700= 250,000 & 1750= 1,250,000

  • Populations extend beyond English European

    Scotch-Irish, Scots, Germans, Blacks

    --------------------------------------------------------

    • 90% lived in rural areas

      • Labor divided among gender

      • Socializing

        ------------------------------------------------------------------

      • Conditions in cities

        • Much worse than countryside

        • Sanitary conditions, population, epidemics

        • Positive: contact with more people, progress and education.


* Education* Differences

  • Education was rare. Not strange to find a hand few of colonists with only a mediocre education, if any.

  • Work first, education secondary

  • Colleges existed solely to train in in ministry.

    -------------------------------------------------------------

  • Various colonial regions differed considerably.


Assessment!

  • Pg. 91 


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