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Research Issues on Routing and Wavelength Assignment for Wavelength Routed WDM Networks. Qualifying Exam. Hsu-Chen, Cheng PhD. Student Department of Information Management National Taiwan University 10/27/2003. Outline. Introduction of Optical Networks WDM Technology

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Research issues on routing and wavelength assignment for wavelength routed wdm networks

Research Issues on Routing and Wavelength Assignment for Wavelength Routed WDM Networks

Qualifying Exam

Hsu-Chen, Cheng

PhD. Student

Department of Information Management

National Taiwan University

10/27/2003


Outline
Outline Wavelength Routed WDM Networks

  • Introduction of Optical Networks

    • WDM Technology

    • Optical Network Control Plane

    • IP/WDM Traffic Engineering

  • Optical Network Design and Engineering

    • Routing and Wavelength Assignment (RWA)

    • Heuristics

  • Optical Multicasting

  • Multi-granularity Architecture of Optical Network

  • Future Research Direction


The trend of network technology
The Trend of Network Technology Wavelength Routed WDM Networks

Introduction of Optical Networks


Optical networks
Optical Networks Wavelength Routed WDM Networks

  • First Generation:

    • FDDI

    • Gigabit Ethernet

  • Second Generation:

    • WDM Local Area Network

      • Passive Star Network

      • Single-Hop WDM Network

    • WDM Wide Area Network

      • Wavelength routed Network

      • OBS

      • OPS

  • Wavelength-routed optical networks are the most promising candidates for backbone high-speed WAN.

Introduction of Optical Networks


Optical network technologies
Optical Network Technologies Wavelength Routed WDM Networks

  • WDM Technology

    • Fixed Point-to-Point  Wavelength routed

    • 300 λ x 40Gbps

  • Optical Components

    • OADM (Optical add/drop multiplexer)

    • OXC (Optical cross-connect)

    • Tunable Laser

    • Amplifier

    • Wavelength Converter

    • Wavelength Splitter

Introduction of Optical Networks


The architecture of wavelength router
The Architecture of Wavelength Router Wavelength Routed WDM Networks

Introduction of Optical Networks


Physical topology and logical topology
Physical Topology and Logical Topology Wavelength Routed WDM Networks

  • A physical topology is a graph representing the physical interconnection of the wavelength routing nodes by means of fiber-optic cables.

  • A logical topology is a directed graph that results when the lightpaths are setup by suitably configuring the wavelength routing nodes.

Optical Network Design and Engineering


The architecture of wavelength routed optical network
The Architecture of Wavelength-routed Optical Network Wavelength Routed WDM Networks

Introduction of Optical Networks


Optical network control plane
Optical Network Control Plane Wavelength Routed WDM Networks

  • Apparatus

    • IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force)

    • ODSI (Optical Domain Service Interconnection)

    • OIF (Optical Internetworking Forum)

  • Issues

    • Signaling Mechanism (UNI)

    • Signaling and control protocol for dynamic lightpath establishment and traffic engineering

Introduction of Optical Networks


Optical network control plane cont d
Optical Network Control Plane (cont’d) Wavelength Routed WDM Networks

  • RSVP-TE

  • CR-LDP

  • Neighbor discovery

  • Link Monitoring

  • State distribution

  • LMP [J. P. Lang 2001]

Link-state routing protocol (OSPF)

Introduction of Optical Networks


Ip wdm traffic engineering
IP/WDM Traffic Engineering Wavelength Routed WDM Networks

  • Overlay Model

    • Closer to classical IP and ARP over ATM scheme

    • The IP and optical network are independent of each other

    • Edge IP router interacts with its ingress OXC over a well-defined UNI

  • Peer Model

    • The IP and optical network are treated together as a single network

  • Augmented Model

    • IP and optical networks use separate routing protocol, but information from one routing protocol is passed through the other routing protocol

G. N. Rouskas and H. G. Perros, A Tutorial on Optical Networks, Networking 2002Tutorials, vol. 2497, 2002, pp. 155-193.

Introduction of Optical Networks


Te model
TE Model Wavelength Routed WDM Networks

  • WDM Traffic Engineering Model

    • Minimum average packet delay

    • Maximize scale up capability

  • MPLS Traffic Engineering Model

    • Overlay model

    • Virtual topology (LSPs)

  • IP over WDM Traffic Engineering Model

    • Virtual topology design

    • Routing and wavelength assignment

Introduction of Optical Networks


Rwa constraints
RWA constraints Wavelength Routed WDM Networks

  • Wavelength continuity constraint

  • Distinct wavelength constraint

Optical Network Design and Engineering


Wavelength conversion

Wavelength converters translate wavelength Wavelength Routed WDM Networksfi to fk.

They may be used as components of the wavelength routing nodes.

Wavelength Conversion

Optical Network Design and Engineering


Rwa problem
RWA Problem Wavelength Routed WDM Networks

  • Static RWA

    • Topology Subproblem

    • Lightpath routing subproblem

    • Wavelength assignment subproblem

    • Traffic routing subproblem

  • Dynamic RWA

    • Route Computation

    • Wavelength Assignment

Optical Network Design and Engineering


Physical topology design
Physical Topology Design Wavelength Routed WDM Networks

  • This step includes –

    • Sizing the links (no. of wavelength channel, capability of each channel)

    • Sizing the OXCs

    • Placement of resources (Amplifiers, Converters, Splitters)

    • Dealing with link or OXC failures

  • Placement of converters [J. Iness, 1999]

    • Sparse location of wavelength converters

    • Sharing of converters (Nodal Design)

    • Limited-range wavelength conversion [R. Ramaswami and G. H. Sasaki, 1998]

Static RWA


Virtual topology design
Virtual Topology Design Wavelength Routed WDM Networks

  • A solution to the static RWA problem consists of a set of long-lived ligthpaths which create a logical topology among the edges node.

  • It is not possible to implement fully connected virtual topologies.

    • N(N-1) lightpaths

  • Objective

    • Minimize the maximum congestion level

    • Minimize the average weighted number of hops

    • Minimize the average packet delay

Static RWA


Wavelength assignment
Wavelength Assignment Wavelength Routed WDM Networks

  • Graph-coloring problem

  • NP-complete

  • Sequential graph-coloring algorithms

Static RWA


Route computation
Route Computation Wavelength Routed WDM Networks

  • Static algorithm and adaptive algorithm

  • Lightpath routing

    • Constraint algorithm

      • Fixed routing algorithm

      • Fixed alternative algorithm

    • Adaptive unconstrained routing (AUR)

    • Hybrid routing

      • Least to most congested

  • AUR has better improvement on call blocking probability[A. Mokhtar and Murat Azizoğlu, 1998]

Dynamic RWA


Candidate paths
Candidate Paths Wavelength Routed WDM Networks

  • The candidate paths for a request are considered in increasing order of path length (or path cost).

  • Path length is defined as the sum of the weights assigned to each physical link along the path.

    • K-minimum hop paths

    • K-minimum distance paths

  • K-shortest path

    • Pair-wise link disjoint

    • Dijkstra algorithm

  • Physical constraints (attenuation, dispersion et al.)

    • Constraint-based shortest path first algorithm [B. Davie, 2000]

Dynamic RWA


Wavelength assignment1
Wavelength Assignment Wavelength Routed WDM Networks

  • [H. Zanf et al., 2000]

    • Random Wavelength Assignment (R)

    • First-Fit (FF)

    • Least-Used (LU)

    • Most-Used (MU)

    • Min-Product (MP)

    • Least-Loaded (LL)

    • MAX-SUM (MΣ)

    • Relative Capacity Loss (RCL)

    • Wavelength Reservation (Rsv)

    • Protecting Threshold (Thr)

Single-fiber

Multi-fiber

Dynamic RWA


General model of virtual topology design
General Model of Virtual Topology Design Wavelength Routed WDM Networks

  • Mixed Integer Linear Programming

    • [B. Mukherjee et al., 1994]

    • [B. Mukherjee et al., 1996]

    • [R.Ramaswami and K. N. Sivarajan, 1996]

    • [R. Krishnaswamy and K. N. Sivarajan, 1998]

    • [R. Krishnaswamy and K. N. Sivarajan, 2001]

  • Objective

General Model


Congestion
Congestion Wavelength Routed WDM Networks

  • Congestion may be viewed as a function of the various parameters of the network such as

    • the traffic matrix,

    • number of wavelengths the fiber can support,

    • resources at each node (number of transmitters and receivers),

    • the hop lengths of the logical links,

    • the multiplicity restrictions on the logical topology,

    • the multiplicity restrictions on the physical topology,

    • symmetry/asymmetry restrictions,

    • the propagation delay.

General Model


Objective
Objective Wavelength Routed WDM Networks

  • The motivation for choosing this objective is that the electronic processing (switching speed) requirement is proportional to the congestion.

  • If the switching speeds at the nodes are limited, then minimizing congestion would be appropriate as it would enable the traffic carried per wavelength to increase.

  • If there is heavy traffic between some source–destination pair, then there is a logical link between them; this is a desirable property.

  • This happens because of the objective function, i.e., if there is heavy traffic between node i and node j then because of the objective there would tend to be an edge in the logical topology.

General Model


Notations
Notations Wavelength Routed WDM Networks

s,d source and destination of a packet, when used as superscripts;

i,j originating and terminating node of a logical link (lightpath);

l,m endpoints of a physical link;

k wavelength number, when used as a superscript.

General Model


Parameters
Parameters Wavelength Routed WDM Networks

General Model


Variables
Variables Wavelength Routed WDM Networks

General Model


Constraints degree constraints
Constraints- Degree Constraints Wavelength Routed WDM Networks

  • The above constraint ensures that the number of logical links originating (out-degree) and terminating (in-degree) at node is less than or equal to the number of transmitters and receivers at that node.

General Model


Constraints traffic constraints
Constraints- Traffic Constraints Wavelength Routed WDM Networks

Traffic routing constraints

Flow Conservation

  • The above first two equations ensure that the load on any logical link is no greater than the maximum load, which is being minimized.

General Model


Constraints wavelength continuity constraints
Constraints- Wavelength Continuity Constraints Wavelength Routed WDM Networks

Unique wavelength constraints:

  • This ensures that if logical link exists, then only one wavelength is assigned to it, among the possible choices.

  • This equation ensures that only those could be nonzero for which the corresponding variables are nonzero.

General Model


Constraints wavelength continuity constraints1
Constraints- Wavelength Continuity Constraints Wavelength Routed WDM Networks

Wavelength clash constraints

Conservation of wavelength constraints

  • Let logical link bijuse wavelength k. Then by conservation of wavelength constraints there is a path in the physical topology from node i to node j with wavelength assigned to it.

General Model


Constraints hop bound constraints
Constraints- Hop Bound Constraints Wavelength Routed WDM Networks

Hop bound Constraints

General Model


Heuristics
Heuristics Wavelength Routed WDM Networks

  • Subproblems:

    • Topology Subproblem: bij

    • Lightpath routing subproblem:

    • Wavelength assignment subproblem:

    • Traffic routing subproblem:

  • Some of above subproblem are NP-hard.

  • Solving the subproblems in sequence and combining the solutions may not result in the optimal solution for the full integrated problem.

RWA Heuristics


Lower bound on congestion
Lower Bound on Congestion Wavelength Routed WDM Networks

  • Physical topology independent bound (p.43)

  • Minimum flow tree bound (MFT) (p.43)

  • Iterative LP-relaxation bound (p.43)

    • Aggregate formulation

    • Cutting Plane

  • Independent topologies bound (p.43)

    • Uniform traffic: 5% - 10% tighter than the bound obtained from MFT

    • Nonuniform traffic: up to 50% higher than MFT bound

RWA Heuristics


Lower bound on the number of wavelength
Lower Bound on the Number of Wavelength Wavelength Routed WDM Networks

  • Physical topology degree bound (p.45)

    • Derived from the Simple consideration that he node with the minimum physical degree.

  • Physical topology link bound (p.46)

    • Assuming that each node sources lightpaths to exactly those node it can be reach with the minimum number of hops.

  • Lagrangian relaxation bound

    • 顏宏旭 (2001)

RWA Heuristics


Regular topologies
Regular Topologies Wavelength Routed WDM Networks

  • Regular topologies such as hypercube have several advantages as virtual topologies.

  • They are well understood, and results regarding bounds and averages are comparatively easier to derive.

  • Two subproblem

    • Node Mapping Subproblem

    • Path Mapping Subproblem

RWAHeuristics


Pre specified topologies
Pre-specified Topologies Wavelength Routed WDM Networks

  • The topology in terms of a list of lightpaths with their source and destination nodes is supposed to be given for each instance of problem.

  • The lightpath routing and wavelength assignment subproblems can be viewd as having goals defined purely in terms of lightpaths.

  • Static Lightpath Establishment problem [I. Chlamtac, 1995]

  • Maximize wavelength utilization [C. Chen, 1995]

  • Randomized rounding and graph coloring [D. Banerjee 1996]

RWAHeuristics


Arbitrary topologies
Arbitrary Topologies Wavelength Routed WDM Networks

  • [R. Ramaswami, 1996]

    • HLDA (Heuristic topology design algorithm)

    • MLDA (Minimum-delay logical topology design algorithm)

    • TILDA (Traffic Independent logical topology design algorithm)

    • LPLDA (LP-relaxation logical topology design algorithm)

    • RLDA (Random logical topology design algorithm)

  • [D. Banerjee, 2000]

    • Maximizing Single-Hop Traffic

    • Maximizing Multihop Traffic

RWAHeuristics


Optical multicasting
Optical Multicasting Wavelength Routed WDM Networks

  • Multicasting at IP layer

Optical Multicasting


Optical multicasting1
Optical Multicasting Wavelength Routed WDM Networks

  • Multicasting by Lightpaths

Optical Multicasting


Optical multicasting2
Optical Multicasting Wavelength Routed WDM Networks

  • Multicasting at WDM Layer (Light Tree Architecture)

Optical Multicasting


Light tree architecture
Light Tree Architecture Wavelength Routed WDM Networks

  • Application

    • Optical multicast

    • Enhanced virtual connectivity

    • Traffic grooming

  • Steiner Tree Problem

    • Shortest path-based heuristic (SPH)

    • Spanning tree-based heuristic (STH)

    • Metaheuristics

Optical Multicasting


Wdm multicast mode
WDM Multicast Mode Wavelength Routed WDM Networks

  • [Y. Yang et al., 2000]

    • Multicast with same wavelength (MSW)

    • Multicast with same destination wavelength model (MSDW)

    • Multicast with any wavelength model (MAW)

Optical Multicasting


Mc rwa
MC-RWA Wavelength Routed WDM Networks

  • MC-RWA bears many similarities to the RWA problem.

  • The tight coupling routing and wavelength assignment remains and becomes stronger.

  • Physical topology design problem

    • Resources placement

    • [M. Ali and J. Deogun, 2000]

  • Virtual topology design problem

    • Minimize call blocking probability

    • Minimize the number of transceiver needed

    • Minimize average packet hop distance

Optical Multicasting


Mc rwa researches 1 2
MC-RWA Researches (1/2) Wavelength Routed WDM Networks

  • [L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, 1999]

    • An optimum light tree-based virtual topology has a lower value of average packet hop distance than that of an optimum lightpath-based virtual topology

    • An optimum light tree-based virtual topology requires fewer opto-electronic components

  • Light forest [X. Zhang et al., 2000]

    • Reroute-to-Source

    • Reroute-to-Any

    • Member-First

    • Member-Only

Optical Multicasting


Mc rwa researches 2 2
MC-RWA Researches (2/2) Wavelength Routed WDM Networks

  • The USCH1 algorithm gives the worst network throughput

  • The wavelength continuity constraint limits the performance of the MSCH1 algorithm

  • The best approach is the MSCH2 if the wavelength converters are not available

  • [Y. Sun et al., 2001]

Optical Multicasting


Super lightpath rwa
Super-Lightpath RWA Wavelength Routed WDM Networks

  • WDM + OTDM

Optical Multicasting


Tree shared multicast
Tree Shared Multicast Wavelength Routed WDM Networks

  • [D. N. Yang and W. Liao, 2003]

    • A light tree can carry data of multiple multicast streams, and data of a multicast stream may traverse multiple light-trees to reach a receiver.

    • Multicast routing and wavelength assignment of light-trees

    • Design of light-tree based logical topology for multicast streams

  • [郭至鈞,民國92]

    • Multicasting group aggregation and MC-RWA

    • Source-based tree aggregation

    • Maximize the total revenue

    • Lagrangian relaxation

Optical Multicasting


Tree sharing strategies
Tree-Sharing Strategies Wavelength Routed WDM Networks

  • Given the set Mi at edge router i, we consider a strategy to decompose Mi into a number of MSCs (Multicast Sharing Class)

  • Perfect Overlap (PO), Super Overlap (SO), and Arbitrary Overlap (AO)

Optical Multicasting


Optical waveband switch
Optical Waveband Switch Wavelength Routed WDM Networks

  • WBS has attracted attention for its practical importance in reducing port count, associates control complexity, and cost of photonic cross-connect.

  • In WBS networks, several wavelengths are grouped together as a band and switch as single entity using single port.

  • MG-OXC not only switch traffic at multiple granularities such as fiber, band, and wavelength, but also add and drop traffic at multiple granularities .

Multi-granularity Optical Networks


Multilayer mg oxc
Multilayer MG-OXC Wavelength Routed WDM Networks

Multi-granularity Optical Networks


Single layer mg oxc
Single Layer MG-OXC Wavelength Routed WDM Networks

Multi-granularity Optical Networks


Lightpath grouping strategy
Lightpath Grouping Strategy Wavelength Routed WDM Networks

  • End-to-end grouping:

    • Grouping the traffic (lightpaths) with same source-destination only

  • One-end grouping:

    • Grouping the traffic between the same source (or destination) nodes and different destination (or source) nodes

  • Subpath grouping:

    • Grouping traffic with common subpath (from any source to any destination)

Multi-granularity Optical Networks


Wrn vs wbs
WRN vs. WBS Wavelength Routed WDM Networks

  • WRN

    • Minimum the number of wavelengths

    • Minimum wavelength hops

  • WBS

    • Minimum the number of ports

  • Waveband conversion

Multi-granularity Optical Networks


Wbs failure recovery
WBS Failure Recovery Wavelength Routed WDM Networks

  • Band Merging

  • Band Swapping

Multi-granularity Optical Networks


Hierarchical routing model
Hierarchical Routing Model Wavelength Routed WDM Networks

  • Network node architecture

  • Sequence of routing and waveband aggregation

  • Route Computation

Multi-granularity Optical Networks


Researches of m lee et al
Researches of M. Lee et al. Wavelength Routed WDM Networks

  • Multi-Layer MG-OXC

  • The waveband is formed by grouping lights with the same destination in a network

  • ILP formulation

  • Maximize the reduction gain of crossconnect size with the minimum number of wavelengths

  • Results

    • The introduction of waveband leads to a very large reduction in crossconnect requirements for large-scale networks.

    • A large reduction of crossconnect requirements can still be expected even at nonoptimal wavelength granularity.

    • The reduction depends on network topology, traffic demand and traffic pattern.

Multi-granularity Optical Networks


Researches of y suemura et al
Researches of Y.Suemura et al. Wavelength Routed WDM Networks

  • Propose and analyze two heuristic routing and

    aggregation algorithms (online and offline) to be used for homogeneous networks in separate routing framework.

  • Minimum the routing cost

    • Assume that all the ports (OEO and optical ones) have the same cost.

    • The cost of routing is the total number of used ports.

  • The simulations demonstrate a significant cost reduction by employing hierarchical routing (from 33% in online algorithm to almost 60% in offline one)

Multi-granularity Optical Networks


Researches of x cao et al
Researches of X. Cao et al. Wavelength Routed WDM Networks

  • This research show that WBS is different from traditional wavelength, and thus techniques developed for wavelength-routed networks cannot be directly applied to effectively WBS-related problem.

  • The objective is to route lightpaths and assign appropriate wavelength to them so as the minimum the total number of prots required by the MG-OXCs.

  • Static offline problem (Network Planning)

    • Balanced Path Routing with Heavy Traffic (BPHT)

  • Dynamic real-time problem (Network Servicing)

    • Maximum Overlap Ratio (MOR)

  • Results

    • BPHT: 50% fewer total ports than using ordinary OXCs

    • MOR: 35 % saving in the number of ports

Multi-granularity Optical Networks


Researches of p ho et al
Researches of P. Ho et al. Wavelength Routed WDM Networks

  • Dynamic tunnel allocation (DTA)

    • Use fixed alternative routing with k-shortest paths to inspect networks along each alternative path for dynamically setting up lightpaths.

  • Capacity-balanced static tunnel allocation (CB-STA)

    • Fiber and waveband tunnels are allocated into networks at the planning stage according to weighted network link-state.

  • Simulation Results

    • DTA is outperformed by CB-STA in the same network environment duo to a well-disciplined approach for allocating tunnels with CB-STA.

    • The mix of the two approaches yields the best performance given the same network environment apparatus.

Multi-granularity Optical Networks


Future research topics
Future Research Topics Wavelength Routed WDM Networks

  • New optical component application

  • Optical Multicasting

    • QoS Multicasting

    • Tree Aggregation Problem

    • Call Admission Control

  • WBS

    • Converter and Splitter Placement

    • Waveband Multicasting

    • Heterogeneous WBS Network

    • Survivability

  • Optical Packet Switch and Optical Burst Switch

  • Passive Optical Network- EPON and GPON

  • After the Optical Bubble?


Q & A Wavelength Routed WDM Networks


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