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Routing and Wavelength Assignment for Wavelength-Routed WDM Networks. Combined routing and wavelength assignment problem Routing static: ILP formulation dynamic: on-line algorithms Wavelength assignment static: graph coloring approach dynamic: heuristics

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Routing and wavelength assignment for wavelength routed wdm networks
Routing and Wavelength Assignment for Wavelength-Routed WDM Networks

  • Combined routing and wavelength assignment problem

  • Routing

    • static: ILP formulation

    • dynamic: on-line algorithms

  • Wavelength assignment

    • static: graph coloring approach

    • dynamic: heuristics

  • A new wavelength assignment heuristic

ECS 259 -- H. Zang and B. Mukherjee, UC Davis


RWA Networks

  • Problem statement

  • Wavelength-continuity constraint

ECS 259 -- H. Zang and B. Mukherjee, UC Davis


Combined routing and wavelength assignment problem
Combined Routing and Wavelength Assignment Problem Networks

ECS 259 -- H. Zang and B. Mukherjee, UC Davis


Routing ilp formulation
Routing - ILP Formulation Networks

ECS 259 -- H. Zang and B. Mukherjee, UC Davis


Routing algorithms for dynamic traffic
Routing - Algorithms For Dynamic Traffic Networks

  • Fixed routing (On/Off line)

  • Fixed-alternate routing (On/Off line)

  • Adaptive routing (On line)

    • adaptive shortest path routing

    • least congested path routing

ECS 259 -- H. Zang and B. Mukherjee, UC Davis


Wavelength assignment with known lightpaths and routes graph coloring
Wavelength Assignment with Known Lightpaths and Routes - Graph Coloring

  • Construct an auxiliary graph G(V,E)

  • Color the nodes of the graph G such that no two adjacent nodes have the same color

  • Sequential graph coloring approaches

ECS 259 -- H. Zang and B. Mukherjee, UC Davis


Wavelength assignment heuristics

Random Graph Coloring

First-Fit

Least-Used/SPREAD

Most-Used/PACK

Min-Product

Least Loaded

MAX-SUM

Relative Capacity Loss

Wavelength Reservation

Protecting Threshold

Wavelength Assignment Heuristics

ECS 259 -- H. Zang and B. Mukherjee, UC Davis


Illustrative example
Illustrative Example Graph Coloring

wavelengths

P1:(2,4)

3

2

1

0

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

Note: control network not shown. All wavelengths shown are for data traffic

ECS 259 -- H. Zang and B. Mukherjee, UC Davis


Calculation of max sum
Calculation of Max-Sum Graph Coloring

wavelengths

P1:(2,4)

3

2

1

WPC:

Wavelength-path

Capacity

0

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

Wavelength

selected:

0, 1, or 3

ECS 259 -- H. Zang and B. Mukherjee, UC Davis


Calculation of relative capacity loss
Calculation of Relative Capacity Loss Graph Coloring

wavelengths

P1:(2,4)

3

2

1

Wavelength selected:

1 or 3

0

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

ECS 259 -- H. Zang and B. Mukherjee, UC Davis


Simulation network
Simulation Network Graph Coloring

2

1

2

1

1

0

3

1

1

1

1

5

4

2

Connection management protocol: link-state

ECS 259 -- H. Zang and B. Mukherjee, UC Davis


Results from others publication
Results from Others’ Publication Graph Coloring

5x5

bidirectional

mesh-torus,

load/W

= 25 Erlangs

Source: S. Subramaniam and R. A. Barry, “Wavelength assignment in fixed routing WDM networks,” Proc. ICC'97 - International Conference on Communications, Montreal, Canada, vol. 1, pp. 406-410, June 1997.

20-node

unidirectional

ring, load/W

= 1 Erlang

R

R

FF, MU

FF

MS

WC

WC

MU, MS

# of wavelengths

# of wavelengths

(a)

(b)

ECS 259 -- H. Zang and B. Mukherjee, UC Davis


Computational complexity
Computational Complexity Graph Coloring

  • Wavelength reservation & Protecting threshold - constant

  • Random & First-Fit - O(W)

  • Min-Product & Least-Loaded - O(NW)

  • Least-Used & Most-Used - O(LW)

  • Max-Sum & Relative Capacity Loss - O(WN3)

  • where W - # of wavelengths, N - # of nodes, L - # of links

ECS 259 -- H. Zang and B. Mukherjee, UC Davis


Distributed rcl algorithm

Wavelength Graph Coloring

selected: 3

*

P1:(2,4)

Distributed RCL Algorithm

3

2

1

0

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

RCL table at Node 2

ECS 259 -- H. Zang and B. Mukherjee, UC Davis


Characteristics of distributed rcl
Characteristics of Distributed RCL Graph Coloring

  • Less state information is exchanged

  • Faster computation of wavelength assignment upon a connection request

  • Can be combined with adaptive routing

ECS 259 -- H. Zang and B. Mukherjee, UC Davis


Simulation network1
Simulation Network Graph Coloring

2

1

2

1

1

  • Average propagation delay between two nodes: 0.107 ms

  • Average hop distance: 1.53

0

3

1

1

1

1

5

4

2

ECS 259 -- H. Zang and B. Mukherjee, UC Davis


Simulation results of distributed rcl
Simulation Results of Distributed RCL Graph Coloring

Comparison of

DRCL with adaptive

routing and

RCL with

fixed routing

ECS 259 -- H. Zang and B. Mukherjee, UC Davis


Conclusion for rwa
Conclusion for RWA Graph Coloring

L: # of links, N: # of nodes, W: # of wavelengths

ECS 259 -- H. Zang and B. Mukherjee, UC Davis


Future research
Future Research Graph Coloring

  • Survivable wavelength-routed WDM networks

    • previous work: static traffic & single link failure [S. Ramamurthy 1998]

    • higher layer protection -logical topology design with bundle cut in mind

    • WDM layer protection - dynamic traffic

ECS 259 -- H. Zang and B. Mukherjee, UC Davis


Future research cont d
Future Research (Cont’d) Graph Coloring

  • Managing multicast connections in wavelength-routed WDM networks

    • KMB

    • Bellman-Ford

    • Chain

ECS 259 -- H. Zang and B. Mukherjee, UC Davis


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