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Reading Quiz - Temperature. 1. All matter is made of ___ 1. Atoms. ___ 2. Combinations of earth, wind, fire and water. ___ 3. Identical particles. ___ 4. Cells. 2. Which of the following is a temperature scale? ___ 1. Celsius. ___ 2. Fahrenheit ___ 3. Kelvin.

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Reading Quiz - Temperature

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Reading quiz temperature

Reading Quiz - Temperature

1. All matter is made of

___ 1. Atoms.

___ 2. Combinations of earth, wind, fire and water.

___ 3. Identical particles.

___ 4. Cells.

2 which of the following is a temperature scale 1 celsius 2 fahrenheit 3 kelvin 4 all of the above

2. Which of the following is a temperature scale?

___ 1. Celsius.

___ 2. Fahrenheit

___ 3. Kelvin.

___ 4. All of the above.

Reading quiz temperature

3.Most materials will

___ 1. not be affected

___ 2. expand

___ 3. contract

when heated.

Thermometers temperature

Thermometers & Temperature

  • Temperature: a measure of how “hot” or “cold” an object is.

  • Thermometers: Instruments that change some physical characteristic which can be used to measure temperature.

  • Examples: a liquid/gas that expands increase in pressure of a gas a bimetallic strip that bends colored bulbs that float/sink changes in color - pyrometer

Reading quiz temperature

  • Temperature scales: Celsius/Centigrade, Fahrenheit, Kelvin

  • Thermal equilibrium: When two objects starting out at different temperatures exchange energy until they both reach the same final temperature.

  • Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics.

Conceptual questions

Conceptual Questions

1) What is the problem with 0°C = 32°F = 273.15K?

____ a) this is mathematically incorrect

____ b) this is mathematically correct

____ c) mixes units

____ d) there is no problem

Reading quiz temperature

2) Three different types of thermometers are used to read the temperature of a warm glass milk. The readings are

____ a) the same for all three thermometers

____ b) the three read slightly different

____ c) the three read very different temperatures

Quantitative questions

Quantitative Questions

1) At what temperature is the Celsius scale the same as the Fahrenheit scale?

2) The body temperature of a healthy human is 98.6°F. Express this in degrees Celsius.

Thermal expansion

Thermal Expansion

  • Most substances expand (contract) when heated (cooled). Experimentally, the change in length, L, of almost all solids is directly proportional to the change in temperature T:

  •  is the coefficient of thermal linear expansion.

  • Note:  (and therefore L) does vary slightly with temperature.

  • Volume expansion:

  •  is the coefficient of volume expansion ( 3)

Reading quiz temperature

  • Anomalous Behavior of Water: expands when cooled from 4°C to 0°C! This implies it is densest at 4°C.

Reading quiz temperature

  • Great importance to the survival of aquatic life during cold winters!

  • It expands even more as it freezes: evidence - ice floats in water and pipes break when water in them freezes.

Conceptual questions1

Conceptual Questions

1) The height of a column of mercury in a thermometer when placed in hot water

____ a) rises immediately

____ b) descends slightly and then rises

____ c) rises and then descends slightly

____ d) descends immediately

Reading quiz temperature

2) Rubber has a negative coefficient of linear expansion. What happens to the size of a piece of rubber as it is warmed?

____ a) it expands

____ b) it remains the same

____ c) it contracts

____ d) it expands non-uniformly

____ e) it contracts non-uniformly

Reading quiz temperature

3) A bimetallic strip, consisting of metal G on the top and metal H on the bottom, is rigidly attached to a wall at the left. The coefficient of linear thermal expansion for metal G is greater than that of metal H. If the strip is uniformly heated, it will

____ a) curve upward.

____ b) curve downward.

____ c) remain horizontal, but get longer.

____ d) bend in the middle.

Reading quiz temperature

4) Consider a flat steel plate with a hole through its center. When the plate’s temperature is increased, the hole

____ a) expand only if it takes up more than half the plate’s surface area.

____ b) contract if it takes up less than half the plate’s surface area.

____ c) always contract.

____ d) always expand.

Reading quiz temperature

5) The surface water temperature on a large, deep lake is 3°C. A sensitive temperature probe is lowered several meters into the lake. What temperature will the probe read?

____ a) A temperature warmer than 3°C.

____ b) A temperature less than 3°C.

____ c) A temperature equal to 3°C.

____ d) There is not enough information to determine the answer.

Quantitative problems

Quantitative Problems

1) The steel bed of a suspension bridge is 200 m long at 20°C. If the extremes of temperature to which it might be exposed are -30°C to +40°C, how much will it contract and expand?

2) Vodka that is “100 proof” is a mixture of half ethyl alcohol and half water (by volume). How much profit per liter will a merchant make if he buys vodka at $10 per liter at 0°C and sells it at $10 per liter at 25°C?

Atomic theory and ideal gas

Atomic Theory and Ideal Gas

  • All matter is ultimately made up of tiny indivisible particles called atoms.

  • Evidence - chemical reactions with definite proportions giving relative weights of the different elements; Brownian motion.

  • Approximate size of atoms? - oil drop experiment.

  • Gas laws and absolute zero of temperature:Boyle’s Law - constant TCharles’s Law - constant PGay-Lussac’s Law - constant V

Reading quiz temperature

  • Ideal Gas Equation: PV = nRTwheren = number of moles R = gas constant = 8.315 J/(molK)

  • One mole is the amount of substance that contains as many atoms or molecules as there are in 12.00 grams of carbon 12. We call this number Avogadro’s number - NA.

  • Hence n = N/NA where N is the total number of molecules/atoms.

  • NA = 6.02 x 1023

  • Ideal Gas Equation: PV = NkT where k is the Boltzmann constant. k =R/NA=1.38 x 10-23 J/K

Kinetic theory

Kinetic Theory

  • Refers to the concept that matter is made up of atoms which are in continual random motion.

  • By considering the collisions between the atoms that make up an ideal gas, and the walls of the container, we can show that the pressure exerted by the gas molecules is given by:

Reading quiz temperature

  • Comparing to the ideal gas equation, we see that

  • Important conclusion: the average translational kinetic energy of molecules in a gas is directly proportional to the absolute temperature of the gas.

Reading quiz temperature

  • In the previous equations refers to the average of the square of the velocities of the molecules in the gas. The molecules in an actual gas have a distribution of speeds with a known probability:

Reading quiz temperature

  • The graphs below depict the speed distributions at two different temperatures:

Reading quiz temperature

  • The distribution curves above are called Maxwell distributions and have been verified by experiment.

  • Activation energy: minimum kinetic energy two molecules must have before they react chemically.

  • Rate of chemical reaction is proportional to the number of molecules with energy greater than the activation energy. Hence we see why reaction rates increase rapidly with increased temperature.

Conceptual question

Conceptual Question

1) According to the ideal gas Law, PV = constant for a given temperature. As a result, an increase in volume corresponds to a decrease in pressure. This happens because the molecules

____ a) collide with each other more frequently.

____ b) move slower on the average.

____ c) strike the container wall less often.

____ d) transfer less energy to the walls of the container each time they strike it.

Reading quiz temperature

2) Which of the following is not correct?

____ a) Matter is composed of tiny particles called molecules.

____ b) The molecules are in constant motion.

____ c) All molecules have the same size and mass.

____ d) The differences between the solid, liquid, and gaseous states can be attributed to the relative freedom of motion of their respective molecules.

Reading quiz temperature

3) The kinetic theory of gases predicts that, at a given temperature,

____ a) all of the molecules in a gas have the same average speed.

____ b) all of the molecules in a gas have the same average energy.

____ c) light gas molecules have lower average energies than heavy gas molecules.

____ d) light gas molecules have higher average energies than heavy gas molecules.

Reading quiz temperature

4) The volume of a gas is held constant while its temperature is raised. The pressure the gas exerts on the walls of its container increases because

____ a) the masses of the molecules increase.

____ b) each molecule loses more kinetic energy when it strikes the wall.

____ c) the molecules are in contact with the wall for a shorter time.

____ d) the molecules have higher average speeds and strike the wall more often.

Reading quiz temperature

5) The temperature of a gas is held constant while its volume is reduced. The pressure the gas exerts on the walls of its container increases because its molecules

____ a) strike the container walls more often.

____ b) strike the container walls with higher speeds.

____ c) strike the container walls with greater force.

____ d) have more energy.

Quantitative problems1

Quantitative Problems

1) What is the average translational kinetic energy of molecules in a gas at 37°C?

2) Since refers to the average of the square of the velocity, the square-root of this quantity is called the root-mean-square speed or . If a gas is at 0°C, to what temperature must it be raised to double the rms speed of its molecules?

3) Why does the moon have no atmosphere?

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