Overview of L2 Motivation. Mikio Iguchi (1 st Year EdD student). Agenda. Purpose of today: To give you a bird’s eye view of the history of L2 motivation, its features, and recent trends. To let you review on motivation in L2 learning as language teachers.
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Mikio Iguchi (1st Year EdD student)
Purpose of today:
To give you a bird’s eye view of the history of L2 motivation, its features, and recent trends.
To let you review on motivation in L2 learning as language teachers.
To let you think, if you were to research on L2 motivation, what would be an interesting topic?
1. Social Psychology (1960s onwards)
2. Cognitive Psychology (1980s – 1990s)
3. Educational Shift & Motivational Renaissance (1990s onwards)
4. Recent Research Trends (2000s onwards)
5. Educational Implications
This presentation is mostly based on Dörnyei’s “Attitudes, orientations, and motivations in language learning: Advances in theory, research, and applications” Language Learning 53 (S1):
“Motivation is, without question, the most complex and challenging issue facing teachers today.” (Scheidecker and Freeman 1999:116)
There isn’t much theory that “provides an all-
round explanation of what we do and why.”
“Motivation is a multifaceted construct, and the
exact nature of the constituent components
activated in a particular situation depends greatly
on contextual factors.”
1.Integrative motivation: aim of learning is to learn about the language group, or to meet more and different people from the target language community, to the point of eventually being accepted as a member of that group.
2. Instrumental motivation: reasons of L2 learning reflect the more utilitarian value of linguistic achievement, such as benefiting in an occupation.1. Social Psychology (1960s onwards)
Integrative motivation: Psychological and emotional identification is in the core idea. (Dörnyei 2003:5-6)1.1 Core Idea of “Integrativeness”
Integrativeness is a process
1.Intrinsic motivation: an inner drive, impulse, emotion, or desire that is derived from inner potentialities and latent resources. e.g. learn L2 for its own sake
2. Extrinsic motivation: an inner drive, impulse, emotion, or desire that is derived from other people, or the real world.
e.g. learn L2 for money, prizes, grades, certain types of positive feedback2.1 Self-determination Theory
“Intrinsically motivated activities are ones for which there is no apparent reward except the activity itself. People seem to engage in the activities for their own sake not because they lead to an extrinsic reward... Intrinsically motivated behaviors are aimed at bringing about certain internally rewarding consequences, namely, feelings of competence and self-determination.” Deci (1975:23)
Future achievement efforts
“It is generally believed that learners who attribute both success and failure to internal factors such as effort are most likely to maintain their motivation at a high level.” Richards and Schmidt (2002: 38)
Thought provoking questions.
“In what ways does past experience affect your students’ motivation to learn English?”
“There has hardly been any attempts in L2 strategies to adopt the other well known goal theory in educational psychology, goal orientation theory, even though, as Pintrich and Schunk (2002: 242) have recently concluded, ‘Currently, it is probably the most active area of research on student motivation in classrooms and it has direct implications for students and teachers.’” (Dörnyei 2003:9)
Self and social image2.4 Schumann’s Theory
Degree of unexpectedness/familiarity
Whether the stimulus is instrumental in satisfying needs or achieving goals
Whether the individual expects to be able to cope with the event
Whether the event is compatible with social norms and the individual’s self-concept
It is WTC that directly influences L2 use.
Factors that support
WTC (Layer III to VI)
Figure 2. Schematic representation
of the three mechanisms making up the proposed task-processing system. Dörnyei (2003:15)
“While learners are engaged in executing a task, they continuously appraise the process, and when the ongoing monitoring reveals that progress is slowing, halting, or backsliding, they activate the action control system to ‘save’ or enhance the action.” Dörnyei (2003:16)
Dörnyei (2003) concludes that “the study of task motivation is certainly one of the most fruitful directions for future research.”
*Note that the preferred term currently is “Self-regulatory learning”
“most participants appeared to have great difficulty in discussing different aspects of their metacognitive strategy use and conveyed a lack of sense of control over their learning….Very little evidence was found of planning behavior” Williams, Burden, and Lanvers (2002:519)
motivation is generated and initiated
encouraging self-evaluation and even self-reflection
Dörnyei (2003: 19)
2. Formulation of Self-motivating Strategies
3. Teacher Motivation5. Educational Implications
1. Creating the basic motivational conditions
4. Encouraging positive retrospective self-evaluation
2. Generating initial motivation
3. Maintaining and protecting motivation
1. Commitment control strategies:for helping to preserve or increase learner’s original goal commitment.
2. Metacognitive control strategies: for monitoring and controlling concentration and for curtailing unnecessary procrastination.
3. Satiation control strategies: for eliminating boredom and adding extra attraction or interest to the task.
4. Emotion control strategies: for managing disruptive emotional states or moods and for generating emotions that will be conducive to implementing one’s intentions.
5. Environmental control strategies: for eliminating negative environmental influences and exploiting positive environmental influences by making the environment an ally in the pursuit of a difficult goal.
“The amount of L2 research on this issue is meager, and quite surprisingly, teacher motivation is also a relatively uncharted area in educational psychology.” Dörnyei (2003: 26)
Dörnyei (2003) points out that “there have been no attempts in the field to compile a list of ‘ways to motivate language teacher’, even though a scientifically validated list of this sort would predictably be very useful and much sought after..”
“What motivates you as a language teacher to teach English in your context? And why?”
Note: This may be a sensitive issue, so if you are to discuss this outside this room, please do not refer to specific individual names. (NG: “Mikio said he was not motivated in teaching his student, when…”)Question4
“I anticipate that the next decade will bring about a consolidation of the wide range of new themes and theoretical orientations that have emerged in the past 10-15 years, and that the often speculative theorizing will be grounded in solid research findings, from both quantitative and qualitative research paradigms.” Dörnyei (2003: 27)
Motivation Group 2007-2008