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Invisible Waves. Infrared Astronomy and Activities Dan Burns Los Gatos High School Lawrence Livermore National Lab [email protected] Overview. What is Infrared Radiation (IR)? Discovery of IR IR Astronomy IR Observatories Classroom Activities. NASA/JPL-Caltech. IR Characteristics.

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Invisible Waves

Infrared Astronomy and Activities

Dan Burns

Los Gatos High School

Lawrence Livermore National Lab

[email protected]

overview
Overview
  • What is Infrared Radiation (IR)?
  • Discovery of IR
  • IR Astronomy
  • IR Observatories
  • Classroom Activities

NASA/JPL-Caltech

ir characteristics
IR Characteristics
  • IR is bounded by Visible Light and Microwave Radiation
  • Wavelengths from about 0.7 to 350 microns
  • Primary Source is Thermal Radiation
  • Humans can sense it with nerves in skin
  • Snakes can “see” IR with Pits (Pit Vipers)

NASA/JPL-Caltech

thermal radiation
Thermal Radiation
  • Emitted by materials with relatively strong molecular or atomic bonds (ie solids and liquids)
  • Every object with a T > 0 K emits thermal radiation
  • Produced by random motions of charged particles
  • Radiation peak, usually in IR, can be used to determine temperature

NASA/JPL-Caltech

NASA/JPL-Caltech

NASA/JPL-Caltech

william herschel
William Herschel
  • German Immigrant to England
  • Discovered Uranus in 1781
  • Catalogued Night Sky with Sister Caroline
  • Discovered IR in 1800

NASA/JPL-Caltech

herschel s ir experiment
Herschel’s IR Experiment
  • Investigated heat of colors in spectrum
  • Temperature increased from violet to red
  • Placed a thermometer beyond red, this measured greatest temperature increase

http://www.sciencemuseum.org.uk/on-line/treasure/objects/1876-565.asp

student herschel experiment
Student Herschel Experiment
  • Materials: Copy Paper Box, Smaller Box, White Paper, Tape, Equilateral Glass Prism, Black Paint, Timer, 3 Thermometers, Sunlight!
  • Time Required: ~ 30 minutes

NASA/JPL-Caltech

equipment setup
Equipment Setup

NASA/JPL-Caltech

NASA/JPL-Caltech

  • Paint Thermometer Bulbs Black
  • Trim and Tape Thermometers Close Together
  • Cut Opening for Prism and Mount it
  • Tape White Sheet of Paper to Bottom of box
procedure outline
Procedure Outline

NASA/JPL-Caltech

NASA/JPL-Caltech

NASA/JPL-Caltech

  • Position Box and Prism so Spectrum Shows
  • Record Shade Temperature
  • Place Thermometers, 1 each in Blue, Yellow, and IR
  • Record Temperatures at 1 minute intervals for 5 minutes
typical results
Typical Results

NASA/JPL-Caltech

why infrared astronomy
Why Infrared Astronomy?
  • Almost Everything Emits IR
  • IR Passes Through Dust
  • Exoplanets Easier to Detect in IR
  • Distant Object’s Visible Light Redshifted
  • Important Molecular Spectra in IR

Credit: ESA/ISO, SWS, A.F.M. Moorwood

ir reveals the invisible
IR Reveals the Invisible

NASA/JPL-Caltech

Interstellar Dust Emits IR

spitzer shows a warped sombrero galaxy
Spitzer Shows a Warped Sombrero Galaxy

http://www.spitzer.caltech.edu/Media/mediaimages/index.shtml

spitzer reveals stars and the galloping ghoul
Spitzer Reveals Stars and the Galloping Ghoul

http://www.spitzer.caltech.edu/Media/mediaimages/index.shtml

ir uncovers what is hidden
IR Uncovers What is Hidden

Visible

Spitzer Space Telescope Reveals Star Formation in DR21

IR

NASA/JPL-Caltech

spitzer zooms into the triffid nebula
Spitzer Zooms into the Triffid Nebula

http://www.spitzer.caltech.edu/Media/mediaimages/index.shtml

ir discovers dim objects
IR Discovers Dim Objects

UK IR Telescope Discovers Brown Dwarfs and Potential Free-Floating Planets in Orion

Image courtesy of the U.K. Infrared Telescope, Mauna Kea Observatory, Hawaii

ir detects distant objects
IR Detects Distant Objects

Visible Light from Very Distant Galaxies is Redshifted to IR

important molecular spectral lines are in ir
Important Molecular Spectral Lines are in IR

IR Space Observatory Reveals Water Molecules being Produced in Orion Nebula

spitzer detects structures in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon dust
Spitzer Detects Structures in Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Dust

http://www.spitzer.caltech.edu/Media/mediaimages/index.shtml

detecting ir
Detecting IR
  • Near, Mid, and Far IR
  • Atmospheric Absorption
  • IR Observatories

NASA/JPL-Caltech

Image courtesy of the U.K. Infrared Telescope, Mauna Kea Observatory, Hawaii

near mid and far ir bands
Near, Mid, and Far IR Bands

NASA/JPL-Caltech

Visible

Near

Mid

NASA/JPL-Caltech

atmosphere impedes ir observation
Atmosphere Impedes IR Observation
  • Water Vapor Absorbs Some IR Wavelengths
  • Atmosphere Emits its own IR Radiation

NASA/JPL-Caltech

past present and future ir observatories
Past, Present, and Future IR Observatories

HST

ESA Herschel

NASA/STScI

IRAS

NASA/JPL-Caltech

Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, Caltech/JPL. IPAC is NASA\'s Infrared Astrophysics Data Center

SST

UKIRT

NASA/JWST

Image courtesy of the U.K. Infrared Telescope, Mauna Kea Observatory, Hawaii

SOFIA

NASA/USRA

student activities
Student Activities
  • Herschel Experiment
  • IR Photo Album
  • Solar Cell IR Detector
  • Near IR Digital Camera
  • IR Detection Cards
  • Red Tide Spectrometer with LabQuest
ir photo album resources
IR Photo Album Resources

http://spaceplace.jpl.nasa.gov/en/kids/sirtf1/sirtf_action.shtml for activity

herschel experiment resources
Herschel Experiment Resources
  • http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/cosmic_classroom/classroom_activities/herschel_experiment.html for detailed activity
  • www.sciencekit.com for prism (catalog # 3038400 $8.95) and thermometers (catalog #6638910 $13.25 for 10-Pack)
solar cell ir detector resources
Solar Cell IR Detector Resources
  • www.radioshack.com for Mini Audio Amplifier (Catalog # 2771008 $14.99), Solar Cell (Catalog # 277-1201 $13.99),
  • 6’ Cable (Catalog # 42-2420 $3.29)
  • http://www.sofia.usra.edu/Edu/materials/activeAstronomy/activeAstronomy.html for detailed activity information
near ir digital camera
Near IR Digital Camera
  • Webcams, Digital Cameras, or Camcorders
  • Remove IR Blocking Filter from CCD
  • Install IR only pass filter (Wratten 87c, exposed color negative, or floppy disk)
  • Reassemble and view the world in Near IR
ir detection cards
IR Detection Cards
  • 2 Types of Materials can Produce Visible Light When Exposed to IR from a Remote Control
  • Anti-Stokes Material Absorbs 2 or More Photons for Every Visible Photon Emitted
  • Phosphorescent Material Must be Exposed to Visible Light First
  • See Activity from KSU Physics Education Group
slide32

Anti-Stokes Model

Phosphorescent Model

red tide spectrometer
Red Tide Spectrometer
  • Red Tide Spectrometer by PASCO and Vernier
  • Educational Model made by Ocean Optics
  • Automatically reads the wavelength calibration coefficients of the spectrometer and configures operating software
  • USB to PC or Mac interface; no external power requirements
  • The Red Tide starts at $1049
california science standards
California Science Standards
  • Earth Science 2d: Students know that stars differ in their life cycles and that visual, radio, and X-ray telescopes may be used to collect data that reveal those differences.
  • Physics 4e: Students know radio waves, light, and X-rays are different wavelength bands in the spectrum of electromagnetic waves.
  • Chemistry 1i, 1j Students know the experimental basis for the development of the quantum theory of atomic structure and the historical importance of the Bohr model of the atom. Students know that spectral lines are the result of transitions of electrons between energy levels and that these lines correspond to photons with a frequency related hv). to the energy spacing between levels by using Planck’s relationship
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