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Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Building 111. Mike Holda Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (510) 486-6358 or (209) 835-8150, [email protected] or [email protected] LLNL Building 111. Originally designed as the Experimental Physics Building Built in 1966

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Lawrence livermore national laboratory building 111

Lawrence Livermore National LaboratoryBuilding 111

Mike Holda

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

(510) 486-6358 or (209) 835-8150,

[email protected] or [email protected]


Llnl building 111
LLNL Building 111

  • Originally designed as the Experimental Physics Building

  • Built in 1966

  • Seven stories, 107,000 square feet

  • Now used as administrative offices & research support space


Llnl building 111 original hvac and lighting equipment
LLNL Building 111Original HVAC and Lighting Equipment

  • Two 225 ton Carrier electric chillers

    • 1.0 + kW/ton efficiency, CFC-11 refrigerant

  • Two gas-fired hot water boilers for heating

  • Two constant volume air handling systems

    • For east wing, south wing & interior

    • Bypassed VAV air handlers and VFD motors

  • Fluorescent light fixtures with T-12 lamps


Llnl building 111 project scenario

23-year-old inefficient chillers in need of overhaul

using CFC refrigerants, 1.0+ kW/ton

Poor air quality and building comfort

Air system was out of balance

Economizers stuck open

High temperature hot water reheat system with supply temperature reset (didn’t work)

Less efficient T-12 lamps

Lighting levels unnecessarily high in hallways

Substantial unoccupied time with lights left on

LLNL Building 111Project Scenario


Llnl building 111 project challenges
LLNL Building 111Project Challenges

  • Fragmented funding for projects

    • In-House Energy Management funding for measures with simple paybacks of < 10 years

  • Work presented here was actually done in Three separate projects

    • Chiller replacements

    • Lighting retrofits

    • HVAC System Improvements


Llnl building 111 system solutions
LLNL Building 111System Solutions

  • (2) Chillers replaced

    • (2) new 200 ton chillers, one chiller redundant

  • New VAV’s & VFD’s added to air system with zone level control

    • 250 zones

    • Economizer controls

  • New T-8 lighting, occupancy sensors, LED exit signs


Llnl building 111 chiller replacement
LLNL Building 111Chiller Replacement

  • Done in 1994

  • New McQuay centrifugal chillers

    • 0.65 kW/ton

    • R-134a

    • 200 tons

    • Expected to save 151,400 kWh per year


Llnl building 111 air system improvements
LLNL Building 111Air System Improvements

  • Done in 1996

  • Converted fixed balancing dampers

    • To variable/automatic actuating dampers

    • Used exist pneumatic controls

    • Could not afford new VAV boxes

    • Air flow controlled in each zone

    • Variable volume terminal boxes hooked up to existing zone heater thermostats

  • New VFD to control fan motors on east, west, south & interior system

  • Economizer controls


Llnl building 111 lighting improvements
LLNL Building 111Lighting Improvements

  • Done in 1995

  • Delamped fixtures

    • Overlit building, especially in corridors

    • Reduced number of lamps per fixture from 3 to 2, or 6 to 3, or 8 to 4

  • Replaced existing T-12 lighting

    • New T-8 fluorescents, electronic ballasts

  • LED fixtures replaced incandescent and fluorescent exit signs

  • Occupancy sensors used to turn off lights in offices, corridors, etc.


Llnl building 111 electrical energy savings
LLNL Building 111Electrical Energy Savings


Llnl building 111 integrated economics
LLNL Building 111Integrated Economics

  • Measures with lower paybacks reduce the overall project payback period


Llnl building 111 financing structure
LLNL Building 111Financing Structure

  • In-House Energy Management Funds from US DOE used for:

    • Chiller Replacements

    • Lighting retrofits

    • HVAC System improvements

  • Appropriations from US DOE, no financing charges


Llnl building 111 project timeline
LLNL Building 111Project Timeline


Llnl building 111 project results
LLNL Building 111Project Results

  • Saved over $73,000 annually on utility bills

    • ~40% of total bill

  • New chillers without CFC’s

    • use R-134a, an HFC

  • Improved air quality & comfort

  • Increased efficiency of HVAC System


Llnl building 111 lessons learned
LLNL Building 111Lessons Learned

  • Projects not planned & executed together

  • Reduced cooling load not accounted for in new chiller sizing

  • Incremental funding with lots of paperwork and hassles

  • Super-ESPC’s developed to address these problems


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