Lawrence livermore national laboratory building 111
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Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Building 111. Mike Holda Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (510) 486-6358 or (209) 835-8150, [email protected] or [email protected] LLNL Building 111. Originally designed as the Experimental Physics Building Built in 1966

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Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Building 111

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Lawrence Livermore National LaboratoryBuilding 111

Mike Holda

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

(510) 486-6358 or (209) 835-8150,

[email protected] or [email protected]


LLNL Building 111

  • Originally designed as the Experimental Physics Building

  • Built in 1966

  • Seven stories, 107,000 square feet

  • Now used as administrative offices & research support space


LLNL Building 111Original HVAC and Lighting Equipment

  • Two 225 ton Carrier electric chillers

    • 1.0 + kW/ton efficiency, CFC-11 refrigerant

  • Two gas-fired hot water boilers for heating

  • Two constant volume air handling systems

    • For east wing, south wing & interior

    • Bypassed VAV air handlers and VFD motors

  • Fluorescent light fixtures with T-12 lamps


23-year-old inefficient chillers in need of overhaul

using CFC refrigerants, 1.0+ kW/ton

Poor air quality and building comfort

Air system was out of balance

Economizers stuck open

High temperature hot water reheat system with supply temperature reset (didn’t work)

Less efficient T-12 lamps

Lighting levels unnecessarily high in hallways

Substantial unoccupied time with lights left on

LLNL Building 111Project Scenario


LLNL Building 111Project Challenges

  • Fragmented funding for projects

    • In-House Energy Management funding for measures with simple paybacks of < 10 years

  • Work presented here was actually done in Three separate projects

    • Chiller replacements

    • Lighting retrofits

    • HVAC System Improvements


LLNL Building 111System Solutions

  • (2) Chillers replaced

    • (2) new 200 ton chillers, one chiller redundant

  • New VAV’s & VFD’s added to air system with zone level control

    • 250 zones

    • Economizer controls

  • New T-8 lighting, occupancy sensors, LED exit signs


LLNL Building 111Chiller Replacement

  • Done in 1994

  • New McQuay centrifugal chillers

    • 0.65 kW/ton

    • R-134a

    • 200 tons

    • Expected to save 151,400 kWh per year


LLNL Building 111Air System Improvements

  • Done in 1996

  • Converted fixed balancing dampers

    • To variable/automatic actuating dampers

    • Used exist pneumatic controls

    • Could not afford new VAV boxes

    • Air flow controlled in each zone

    • Variable volume terminal boxes hooked up to existing zone heater thermostats

  • New VFD to control fan motors on east, west, south & interior system

  • Economizer controls


LLNL Building 111Lighting Improvements

  • Done in 1995

  • Delamped fixtures

    • Overlit building, especially in corridors

    • Reduced number of lamps per fixture from 3 to 2, or 6 to 3, or 8 to 4

  • Replaced existing T-12 lighting

    • New T-8 fluorescents, electronic ballasts

  • LED fixtures replaced incandescent and fluorescent exit signs

  • Occupancy sensors used to turn off lights in offices, corridors, etc.


LLNL Building 111Electrical Energy Savings


LLNL Building 111Integrated Economics

  • Measures with lower paybacks reduce the overall project payback period


LLNL Building 111Financing Structure

  • In-House Energy Management Funds from US DOE used for:

    • Chiller Replacements

    • Lighting retrofits

    • HVAC System improvements

  • Appropriations from US DOE, no financing charges


LLNL Building 111Project Timeline


LLNL Building 111Project Results

  • Saved over $73,000 annually on utility bills

    • ~40% of total bill

  • New chillers without CFC’s

    • use R-134a, an HFC

  • Improved air quality & comfort

  • Increased efficiency of HVAC System


LLNL Building 111Lessons Learned

  • Projects not planned & executed together

  • Reduced cooling load not accounted for in new chiller sizing

  • Incremental funding with lots of paperwork and hassles

  • Super-ESPC’s developed to address these problems


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