Parts of Speech Grammar Notes. Glencoe Language Arts Grammar and Composition Handbook Grade 9 (92-128). Noun: A noun is a word that names a person, a place, a thing, or an idea ( 93 ). uncle, doctor, kitchen, apple, respect, pride
Glencoe Language Arts Grammar and Composition Handbook Grade 9 (92-128)
Practice exercise page 94.
For most nouns ending in thing, or an idea (f or fe, change the f to v and add –s or –es.
knife—knives, life—lives, wife—wives, chief—chiefs
Other nouns have irregular plurals.
man—men, child—children, ox—oxen
Some nouns do not change form from singular to plural.
Practice exercise page 95. thing, or an idea (
Collective nouns: A thing, or an idea (collective noun is singular in form but names a group (97).
family, herd, company, band, team, audience, troop, committee, jury, flock
Pronoun: A thing, or an idea (pronoun is a word that takes the place of a noun, a group of words acting as a noun, or another pronoun. The word or group of words to which a pronoun refers is called its antecedent (98).
Personal Pronouns thing, or an idea (
Possessive Pronouns thing, or an idea (
Practice exercise page 100.
Reflexive and Intensive Pronouns thing, or an idea (
Demonstrative Pronouns thing, or an idea (
Interrogative Pronouns thing, or an idea (
Relative Pronouns thing, or an idea (
Indefinite Pronouns thing, or an idea (
An indefinite pronoun refers to persons, places, things, or ideas in a more general way than a noun does (104).
Practice exercise page 105.
Practice exercises page 107.
Be thing, or an idea ( in all its forms—is, are, was, were, be, am—is the most commonly used linking verb.
Other verbs that can be linking verbs:
Practice using linking verbs by writing ten sentences containing linking verbs. Remember that they must link the subject to a word that identifies or describes the subject.
Verb phrases: The verb in a sentence may consist of more than one word. The words that accompany the main verb are called auxiliary, or helping, verbs.
A verb phrase consists of a main verb and all its auxiliary, or helping verbs (108).
Auxiliary Verbs than one word. The words that accompany the main verb are called
These verbs are more easily memorized in this order.
Practice exercises pages 109-110.
Adjective: An than one word. The words that accompany the main verb are called adjective is a word that modifies a noun or a pronoun by limiting its meaning. An adjective tells what kind, which one, how many, or how much (110).
Practice exercises page 111.
Forms of adjectives: Many than one word. The words that accompany the main verb are called adjectives have different forms to indicate their degree of comparison. The positive form indicates no comparison. The comparative form compares two nouns or pronouns. The superlative form compares more that two nouns or pronouns (112).
Articles: Articles are the adjectives than one word. The words that accompany the main verb are called a, an, and the. A and an are indefinite articles. A is used before a consonant sound and an is used before a vowel sound. The is the definite article (113).
Proper adjectives are formed from proper nouns and begin with a capital letter.
Practice exercises page 114.
Practice exercises page 116.
Some adverbs form the comparative and superlative irregularly:
Practice exercises page 118.
Prepositions: A irregularly:preposition is a word that shows the relationship of a noun or pronoun to another word in a sentence.
A prepositional phrase is a group of words that begins with a preposition and ends with a noun or a pronoun that is called the object of thepreposition (118).
PREPOSITIONS: You should know these irregularly:
A irregularly:compound preposition is a preposition that is made up of more than one word.
Practice exercises page 120.
Practice exercises page 122.
Common Subordinating Conjunctions If the word has an object, it is used as a preposition. If not, it is an adverb.
Practice exercises page 123. Write ten original sentences using different subordinating conjunctions from this page. Five subordinate clauses should begin the sentence and five should be at the end.
Common Conjunctive Adverbs If the word has an object, it is used as a preposition. If not, it is an adverb.
Practice exercises pages 124-125. Write five sentences using conjunctive adverbs. Be sure to punctuate them correctly.
Practice exercises page 125-126. The second exercise is the first parts of speech review.
Look! A little green frog is leaping quickly from leaftoleaf and catching flies for himself.