Parts of Speech Grammar Notes. Glencoe Language Arts Grammar and Composition Handbook Grade 9 (92-128). Noun: A noun is a word that names a person, a place, a thing, or an idea ( 93 ). uncle, doctor, kitchen, apple, respect, pride
Glencoe Language Arts Grammar and Composition Handbook Grade 9 (92-128)
Noun: A noun is a word that names a person, a place, a thing, or an idea (93).
Practice exercise page 94.
knife—knives, life—lives, wife—wives, chief—chiefs
Other nouns have irregular plurals.
man—men, child—children, ox—oxen
Some nouns do not change form from singular to plural.
Possessive nouns: A noun can show possession, ownership, or the general relationship between two nouns (94).
Collective nouns: A collective noun is singular in form but names a group (97).
family, herd, company, band, team, audience, troop, committee, jury, flock
A collective noun is considered singular if you are talking about the whole group acting together.
Pronoun: A pronoun is a word that takes the place of a noun, a group of words acting as a noun, or another pronoun. The word or group of words to which a pronoun refers is called its antecedent (98).
Practice exercise page 100.
The reflexive pronoun reflects back to the subject and always adds information.
An indefinite pronoun refers to persons, places, things, or ideas in a more general way than a noun does (104).
Practice exercise page 105.
Verb: A verb is a word that expresses action or a state of being and is necessary to make a statement (105).
Practice exercises page 107.
Linking verbs: A linking verb links, or joins, the subject of a sentence (often a noun or a pronoun) with a noun, a pronoun, or an adjective that identifies or describes the subject. A linking verbdoes not show action (108).
Be in all its forms—is, are, was, were, be, am—is the most commonly used linking verb.
Other verbs that can be linking verbs:
Practice using linking verbs by writing ten sentences containing linking verbs. Remember that they must link the subject to a word that identifies or describes the subject.
Verb phrases: The verb in a sentence may consist of more than one word. The words that accompany the main verb are called auxiliary, or helping, verbs.
A verb phrase consists of a main verb and all its auxiliary, or helping verbs (108).
These verbs are more easily memorized in this order.
Practice exercises pages 109-110.
Adjective: An adjective is a word that modifies a noun or a pronoun by limiting its meaning. An adjective tells what kind, which one, how many, or how much (110).
Practice exercises page 111.
Forms of adjectives: Many adjectives have different forms to indicate their degree of comparison. The positive form indicates no comparison. The comparative form compares two nouns or pronouns. The superlative form compares more that two nouns or pronouns (112).
Articles: Articles are the adjectives a, an, and the. A and an are indefinite articles. A is used before a consonant sound and an is used before a vowel sound. The is the definite article (113).
Proper adjectives are formed from proper nouns and begin with a capital letter.
Practice exercises page 114.
Adverbs: An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb by making its meaning more specific (114).
Adverbs modify by answering these questions: When? Where? How? To what degree?
Practice exercises page 116.
Adverbs that compare: Like adjectives, some adverbs have different forms to indicate their degree of comparison. The comparative form compares two actions. The superlative form compares more that two actions.
Some adverbs form the comparative and superlative irregularly:
Practice exercises page 118.
Prepositions: A preposition is a word that shows the relationship of a noun or pronoun to another word in a sentence.
A prepositional phrase is a group of words that begins with a preposition and ends with a noun or a pronoun that is called the object of thepreposition (118).
A compound preposition is a preposition that is made up of more than one word.
Some words may be used as either a preposition or an adverb. If the word has an object, it is used as a preposition. If not, it is an adverb.
Practice exercises page 120.
Conjunctions: A conjunction is a word that joins single words or groups of words (120).
Correlative conjunctions work in pairs to join words and groups of words of equal grammatical weight in a sentence (121).
Practice exercises page 122.
Subordinating conjunctions join two clauses, or thoughts, in such a way as to make one grammatically dependent on the other (122).
Practice exercises page 123. Write ten original sentences using different subordinating conjunctions from this page. Five subordinate clauses should begin the sentence and five should be at the end.
A conjunctive adverb is used to clarify the relationship between clauses of equal weight in a sentence.
Practice exercises pages 124-125. Write five sentences using conjunctive adverbs. Be sure to punctuate them correctly.
Interjections: An interjection is a word or a phrase that expresses emotion or exclamation. An interjection has no grammatical connection to the other words (125). Note the punctuation.
Practice exercises page 125-126. The second exercise is the first parts of speech review.
Look! A little green frog is leaping quickly from leaftoleaf and catching flies for himself.