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What makes a species invasive? b) Environmental <Global> Change Hypothesis. Global Changes Increasing atmospheric CO 2. Keeling & Whorf (2004) CDIAC. What makes a species invasive? b) Environmental <Global> Change Hypothesis. Global Changes Increasing atmospheric CO 2. Photosynthesis:

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  • Global Changes

  • Increasing atmospheric CO2

Keeling & Whorf (2004) CDIAC


  • Global Changes

  • Increasing atmospheric CO2


Photosynthesis:

6CO2 + 6H2O + light 

C6H1206 + 6O2 + energy

CO2

  • What makes a species invasive?

    • b) Environmental <Global> Change Hypothesis

  • Global Changes

  • Increasing atmospheric CO2 has 2 direct effects on plants:

    • Increases photosynthesis → more C for growth


Photosynthesis:

6CO2 + 6H2O + light 

C6H1206 + 6O2 + energy

CO2

H2O

  • What makes a species invasive?

    • b) Environmental <Global> Change Hypothesis

  • Global Changes

  • Increasing atmospheric CO2 has 2 direct effects on plants:

    • Increases photosynthesis → more C for growth

    • Closes leaf stomates → uses less water


Photosynthesis:

6CO2 + 6H2O + light 

C6H1206 + 6O2 + energy

CO2

H2O

  • What makes a species invasive?

    • b) Environmental <Global> Change Hypothesis

  • Global Changes

  • Increasing atmospheric CO2 has 2 direct effects on plants:

    • Increases photosynthesis → more C for growth

    • Closes leaf stomates → uses less water

  • Not all species react the same:

    • C3 plants – responsive to CO2; high stomatal opening


  • Global Changes

  • Increasing atmospheric CO2 has 2 direct effects on plants:

    • Increases photosynthesis → more C for growth

    • Closes leaf stomates → uses less water

  • Not all species react the same:

    • C3 plants – responsive to CO2; high stomatal opening

    • C4 plants – CO2 concentrating mechanism; small stomatal opening


  • Global Changes

  • Increasing atmospheric CO2 has 2 direct effects on plants:

    • Increases photosynthesis → more C for growth

    • Closes leaf stomates → uses less water

  • Not all species react the same

    • C3 plants – responsive to CO2; high stomatal opening

    • C4 plants – CO2 concentrating mechanism; small stomatal opening

    • CAM plants – CO2 fixed at night & stored; stomata open at night


Photosynthesis:

6CO2 + 6H2O + light 

C6H1206 + 6O2 + energy

CO2

H2O

  • What makes a species invasive?

    • b) Environmental <Global> Change Hypothesis

  • Global Changes

  • Increasing atmospheric CO2 has 2 direct effects on plants:

    • Increases photosynthesis → more C for growth

    • Closes leaf stomates → uses less water

  • Not all species react the same

    • C3 plants – responsive to CO2; high stomatal opening

    • C4 plants – CO2 concentrating mechanism; small stomatal opening

    • CAM plants – CO2 fixed at night & stored; stomata open at night


Global Changes – Increasing atmospheric CO2

From Dukes in Mooney & Hobbs (2000) – Table 5.1: Stimulation of growth for invasive species by elevated atmospheric CO2


Global Changes – Increasing atmospheric CO2

From Belote et al. (2003) New Phytologist 161:827-835 – Oak Ridge Free Air CO2Enrichment (FACE) experiment in sweet gum forest


Global Changes – Increasing atmospheric CO2

From Belote et al. (2003) New Phytologist 161:827-835 – C4 invasive annual grass & C3 invasive woody vine in sweet gum forest

2001 = wet year


Global Changes – Increasing atmospheric CO2

From Belote et al. (2003) New Phytologist 161:827-835 – C4 invasive annual grass & C3 invasive woody vine in sweet gum forest

2001 = wet year

<


Global Changes – Increasing atmospheric CO2

From Belote et al. (2003) New Phytologist 161:827-835 – C4 invasive annual grass & C3 invasive woody vine in sweet gum forest

2001 = wet year

>

<


Global Changes – Increasing atmospheric CO2

From Belote et al. (2003) New Phytologist 161:827-835 – C4 invasive annual grass & C3 invasive woody vine in sweet gum forest

2001 = wet year

>

<


Global Changes – Increasing atmospheric CO2

From Belote et al. (2003) New Phytologist 161:827-835 – C4 invasive annual grass & C3 invasive woody vine in sweet gum forest

2001 = wet year

>

<

2002 = dry year

<


Global Changes – Increasing atmospheric CO2

From Belote et al. (2003) New Phytologist 161:827-835 – C4 invasive annual grass & C3 invasive woody vine in sweet gum forest

2001 = wet year

>

<

2002 = dry year

<


Global Changes – Increasing atmospheric CO2

From Belote et al. (2003) New Phytologist 161:827-835 – C4 invasive annual grass & C3 invasive woody vine in sweet gum forest

2001 = wet year

>

<

2002 = dry year

<

<


Global Changes – Increasing atmospheric CO2

From Smith et al. (2000): Nevada Desert FACE Facility


Global Changes – Increasing atmospheric CO2

From Smith et al. (2000): Red brome (Bromus madritensis ssp. rubens)


Global Changes – Increasing atmospheric CO2

From Dukes in Mooney & Hobbs (2000) – Fig. 5.1: Stimulation of growth by elevated CO2 for invasives vs. noninvasives


  • Global Changes

  • Increasing atmospheric CO2

    • Evidence in some specific cases

    • But not all invasives benefit


  • Global Changes

  • Increasing atmospheric CO2

  • Global warming


  • Global Changes

  • Increasing atmospheric CO2

  • Global warming

  • Increasing N deposition


  • Global Changes

  • Increasing atmospheric CO2

  • Global warming

  • Increasing N deposition

  • SUMMARY:Global Changes

  • General response is similar to that observed for elevated CO2

    • Evidence in some specific cases

    • But not all invasives benefit


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