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TQM . Quality . Lecturer : Kanjana Thongsanit [email protected] Define “Quality”. The Transcendent Approach Barbara Tuchman’s(1980) definition “a condition of excellence implying fine quality as distinct from poor quality …”. Define “Quality”.

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Lecturer : KanjanaThongsanit

[email protected]

Define “Quality”

  • The Transcendent Approach

    Barbara Tuchman’s(1980) definition

    “a condition of excellence implying fine quality as distinct from poor quality …”

Define “Quality”

  • The Product-based Approach identifies specific features or attributes that can be measured to indicate higher quality.

    For example,

    Leather upholstery for car seats is considered higher quality than vinyl.

Define “Quality”

  • The User-based Approach

    The product or service that best satisfies the user is the higher quality product.

    Jurandefined --- Fitness for use

Define “Quality”

  • The Manufacturing-based Approach

    The more closely manufacturing can conform to those requirements, the better the quality of the product.


    Precision +/- ½ inch & Precision +/- 1/10 inch

    This definition has the advantages of providing objectively measurable quality standards and of reducing the costs of quality.

Define “Quality”

  • The Value-based Approach

    Garvin(1988) argued for an understanding of the element of quality as perceived by the user.

    The eight dimensions is defined

    - Performance- Durability

    - Features- Serviceability

    - Reliability- Aesthetics

    - Conformance- Perceived quality

Define “Quality”

The eight dimensions

  • Performance

    • The primary operating characteristic of the product or service.

- The number of rooms

- Size

- The number of bathrooms

Define “Quality”

The eight dimensions

  • Features

    • The additional characteristics


      - Deleaded ink for newspapers

Define “Quality”

The eight dimensions

  • Reliability of a product

    - Gavin states that reliability is “more relevant to durable goods”

    e.g. people buy services that guarantee mail delivery.

Define “Quality”

The eight dimensions

  • Conformance

    • Product and service meets the specified standards.

      “ The process that has more parts meeting the target requirement is better than one that does not ”

Define “Quality”

The eight dimensions

  • Durability

    • The length of a product’s life

How many hours the bulb will be replaced ?

Define “Quality”

The eight dimensions

  • Serviceability

    • The speed & service  response time

How to measure

serviceability ?

Define “Quality”

The eight dimensions

  • Aesthetics (subjective dimensions)

    • The individual ’s personal preference

    • The ways an individual response to the look, feel, sound, taste and smell.

e.g. better sounding stereo speakers would be

considered higher quality

Define “Quality”

The eight dimensions

  • Perceived quality (subjective dimensions)

    • Indirect measures

      e.g. You know good work by his tools.

      Brand name

In class 1

  • Pick up a product or service.

  • Which of eight quality dimensions listed by Garvin are used to evaluate the product?

    20 groups

    1-10 product

    11-20 Service

Quality Gurus

  • Deming

    • The first American to introduce quality principles to the Japanese.

    • Deming learned the basic concepts of Statistical Quality Control from Shewhart.


  • The Japanese Union of Scientist and Engineering (JUSE) used the money from registration fees to establish the Deming Prize.


  • Continual improvement

    • Deming characterized these causes as “common” and “special”

      “common cause” - poor product design

      - un comfortable working condition

      “special causes”- specific to a situation

      e.g. Poor incoming materials

      Deming proposed to use process control charts to discriminate between the two types of causes.


  • He arrived in Japan four years after Deming

  • Juran expressed his approach to quality in form of the quality trilogy.

  • 3 Basic Processes

    • Quality planning

    • Quality control

    • Quality improvement


  • Quality Planning

    • First identifying the customer

      anyone impacted by the process.

      Internal customer and External customer


  • Quality Planning

    • Determining the customer needs and establish quality goals

    • Process design

  • Quality Control

    • The critical elements had to be identified and measures

    • The method of measurement had to be defined

    • The actual performance & standard

    • Take action on the difference


  • Quality Improvement

    • Proving the need for improve and establishing specific improvement project

    • Team had to be organized to guide the project

    • Discover the causes

    • Provide remedies

    • Develop the mechanism to control the new process

Quality trilogy

The concept of cost of quality

  • Conformance Costs

    • Prevention Costs – training, quality circle,

    • Appraisal Costs - cost associated with measuring and evaluating the product or service quality

  • Conformance Costs

    • Internal Failure Costs – scrap, rework

    • External Failure Costs – direct and indirect cost e.g. labor and travel to investigate the customer complaints


  • Argued that zero defects was a desirable and achievable goal.

  • Defined quality as conformance to requirement

  • He insisted that the way to achieve zero defects was to improve prevention techniques.

Crosby’s Interpretation of Conformance Cost


  • Armand Feigenbaum developed the concept of Total Quality Control.

  • He feels that the quality philosophy extends beyond the factory floor (including all function in an organization).


  • He believed that all employees should be involved in studying and promoting quality control by learning seven statistical tools.

    (He created cause-and-effect diagram.)


  • He defined the customer as the person in the line.

  • QCC  putting workers into teams to solve quality problems.


  • Taguchi viewed quality as an issue for the entire company and focused on the use of statistical methods to improve quality.

  • Proposed the Loss Function’s concept.

The Loss Function’s concept

  • the loss function’s concept.

The Loss Function’s concept

Sony TV

Distribution of color density for TV sets

The Loss Function

The Loss Function

Y = k(x-target)2

y = the cost or loss incurred by a measurement on an item

k = a constant, to be determined for each application

x = the actual measurement on the item

target = the most desirable or optimal value of the measurement

In class 2

  • The specifications for the diameter of an axle are 25.00 mm. + 0.25 mm. If the diameter is out of specifications, the axle must be scrapped at a cost of $4.00.

    What is the loss function for this application?


QM = Quality Management

QA = Quality Assurance

QC = Quality Control



Quality Control: QC

  • เน้นที่การตรวจเช็คเป็นหลัก

  • ตรวจหาจุดบกพร่องและแยกของเสียทิ้ง

  • บทบาทของผู้ตรวจคือ การตรวจดูผลงานของผู้อื่น ว่าถูกต้องหรือเปล่า แล้วส่งผลการตรวจเพื่อเป็นข้อมูลให้กับฝ่ายผลิต

    เน้น จำนวนผลงาน ที่ถูกต้องตามกำหนด หรือจำนวนที่ทำเสีย

Quality Assurance

  • เน้นที่ตัวระบบ และวิธีปฏิบัติงาน (Procedure)

  • ออกแบบ ให้คุณภาพเข้าไปอยู่ในระบบหรือวิธีปฏิบัติงาน

  • ทำให้เป็นไปตามมาตรฐาน หรือข้อกำหนด

    เน้น วิธีปฏิบัติงาน วิธีผลิตสินค้าหรือบริการ โดยเน้นผลิตสินค้าที่มีคุณภาพ เพื่อสร้างความพึงพอใจให้แก่ลูกค้า

Quality management

  • มององค์กรเป็นระบบ ซึ่งประกอบด้วย





Quality management : ISO 9000

Assignment 1

  • Explain the quality process model

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