Source water protection through healthy forests
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Source Water Protection Through Healthy Forests. 2014 AWWA ACE14 - Uniting the World of Water - Boston, MA - June 8-11, 2014. G. Tracy Mehan The Cadmus Group, Inc . Today’s Presentation. Watershed Conditions & Water Quality Impacts. 1. Forested Watersheds & Management. 2.

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Source Water Protection Through Healthy Forests

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Source water protection through healthy forests

Source Water Protection Through Healthy Forests

2014 AWWA ACE14 - Uniting the World of Water - Boston, MA - June 8-11, 2014

  • G. Tracy Mehan

  • The Cadmus Group, Inc.


Today s presentation

Today’s Presentation

Watershed Conditions & Water Quality Impacts

1

Forested Watersheds & Management

2

U.S. Endowment & AWWA Partnership

3

Source Water Protection Efforts

4

Funding Source Water Protection

5

Resources

6

2014 AWWA ACE14: Uniting the World of Water - Boston, MA - June 8-11


Watershed conditions water quality impacts

Watershed Conditions & Water Quality Impacts

Increased imperviousness &disturbanceslead to decline in water quality

Effects of urbanization on headwater streams

Relationship between degree of forest cover and drinking water treatment cost

2014 AWWA ACE14: Uniting the World of Water - Boston, MA - June 8-11


Forested watersheds management

Forested Watersheds & Management

2014 AWWA ACE14: Uniting the World of Water - Boston, MA - June 8-11


What is a healthy well managed forest

What is a Healthy, Well-Managed Forest?

  • Managed for multiple values:

    • Lumber

    • Fiber

    • Recreation

    • Ecosystem services

    • Wildlife

  • Protected against catastrophic fire, invasive species, disease, overstocking (high stand density)

  • One approach: forest certification, e.g. SFI

  • Protection of both public and private forests

2014 AWWA ACE14: Uniting the World of Water - Boston, MA - June 8-11


Poor forest management affects water quality

Poor Forest Management Affects Water Quality

Less filtration, removal of sediment, uptake of chemicals/ pollutants

Increased sediment runoff, ash from forest fires, water temperature from tree/shade removal

2014 AWWA ACE14: Uniting the World of Water - Boston, MA - June 8-11


Utilities don t need to own land to protect it

Utilities Don’t Need to Own Land to Protect It

Private landowners may be incentivized to improve management to benefit water quality

Third parties, e.g. land trusts, may also own and manage land or facilitate easements

2014 AWWA ACE14: Uniting the World of Water - Boston, MA - June 8-11

2014 AWWA ACE14: Uniting the World of Water - Boston, MA - June 8-11


Benefits of well managed forests

Benefits of Well-Managed Forests

Healthy, well-managed forests

High quality, protected source water

Less water treatment

Less energy and chemicals

Sustainable communities

Less cost to utilities and citizens

Ancillary values (e.g. carbon sequestration, habitat)

2014 AWWA ACE14: Uniting the World of Water - Boston, MA - June 8-11


U s endowment awwa partnership

U.S. Endowment & AWWA Partnership

2014 AWWA ACE14: Uniting the World of Water - Boston, MA - June 8-11


T he u s endowment for forestry and communities

The U.S. Endowment for Forestry and Communities

Partnership with AWWA

  • Seeks systemic, transformative change in protection of forested watersheds via “beneficiary pays” (payments for watershed services) and other approaches

  • Links water consumers with water producers—forest landowners

  • Promotes cost-effectiveness of watershed protection as a complement to traditional treatment

  • Supports local efforts to develop long-term or sustainable funding: utility base budgets, fees for water consumers, sales taxes, conservation ballot measures

A perpetual endowment to promote healthy, sustainable forests and their many societal benefits (www.usendowment.org)

2014 AWWA ACE14: Uniting the World of Water - Boston, MA - June 8-11


Awwa utilities survey goals

AWWA Utilities Survey - Goals

  • AWWA provided support to the U.S. Endowment by conducting a survey of utility members on source water protection issues in 2013

  • Three primary goals:

    1. Notify its members of the collaboration

    2. Garner support and identify relevant contacts

    3. Gather input on the potential of forested watershed management and conservation efforts to improve source water quality

2014 AWWA ACE14: Uniting the World of Water - Boston, MA - June 8-11


Awwa utilities survey key findings

AWWA Utilities Survey – Key Findings

  • 75% of respondents indicated forest lands play a very or somewhat significant role in protecting their water quality

  • There was a diverse mixture of public lands and private lands in source watersheds. Equal numbers indicated 75-100% public lands and <25% private lands.

  • Nearly 90% of respondents have or are developing a source water protection program

2014 AWWA ACE14: Uniting the World of Water - Boston, MA - June 8-11


Awwa utilities survey trends

AWWA Utilities Survey - Trends

  • Most common concern (62%) of respondents was agricultural non-point source pollution.

  • Respondents were also concerned about:

    • Impervious surface runoff (52%)

    • Urban non-point source pollution (49%)

    • Point source pollution (45%)

    • Mining, oil, natural gas, and other mineral extraction (30%)

  • Conclusions:

    • Many opportunities exist to improve source water protection

    • More research may be needed to determine whether other utilities that did not participate in the survey are interested in source water protection

2014 AWWA ACE14: Uniting the World of Water - Boston, MA - June 8-11


Beneficiary pays approach

Beneficiary Pays Approach

Forested watersheds supply nearly two-thirds of the clean water supply in the U.S.

The “Beneficiary Pays” approach helps communities develop sustainable funding to protect and management of forested watersheds and water supplies.

Top-down planning and bottom-up implementation are necessary for source water protection (SWP).

2014 AWWA ACE14: Uniting the World of Water - Boston, MA - June 8-11


Green complements gray

Green Complements Gray

2014 AWWA ACE14: Uniting the World of Water - Boston, MA - June 8-11


Financial benefits

Financial Benefits

-$1

+$27

$1 spent on SWP saves $27 on water treatment (Winecki, 2012)

10% increase in forest cover reduces treatment and chemical costs by 20% (TPL & AWWA, 2004) (needs further research and verification*)

* TPL concluded in a 2008 study reviewing the 2004 data and additional data that “relationships [between source water quality, percent land cover, and drinking water treatment costs] are weak due to high variability within the data”

NYC filtration avoidance waiver allowed $2 billion investment in watershed vs projected $10 billion in treatment, operations, and maintenance

$2 billion

$10 billion

2014 AWWA ACE14: Uniting the World of Water - Boston, MA - June 8-11


Source water protection efforts

Source Water Protection Efforts

2014 AWWA ACE14: Uniting the World of Water - Boston, MA - June 8-11


Back to the future

Back to the Future

  • Philadelphia, PA

    • 1812: Bought 9,000 acres to protect source water

  • Seattle, WA

    • 1889: Began acquiring the forested Cedar River Watershed to protect and filter its source water. It now owns the entire 99,000 acre watershed

  • Providence, RI

    • 1980s: Began collecting fee for land acquisition: One penny per hundred gallons of water delivered

    • Providence Water owns 33% of land surrounding reservoir

  • Manchester, NH

    • Owns 8,000 acres around source lake

    • Revenue from sustainable timber harvests: $150,000-$200,000 per year

  • CT Southern Water Authority

    • Owns and carefully manages 27,000 acres

2014 AWWA ACE14: Uniting the World of Water - Boston, MA - June 8-11


Boston green complements gray

Boston: Green Complements Gray

  • Division of Water Supply Protection (DWSP), Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation (DCR), Quabbin Watershed:

    • 2.5 million people – Boston & Chicopee Valley

    • 1920-1930s: Purchased 60,000 acres of the Quabbinwatershed

    • Today: DWSP owns 81,000 acres

    • Revenue from sustainable timber harvests: $300,000-$800,000 per year

  • Multiple Barrier approach:

    • Watershed protectionto provide high quality source water

      • Funded entirely by ratepayers

    • Filtration (by forest) to remove particulate contaminants and some pathogens

      • Filtration waiver (SDWA)

    • Disinfection to kill surviving microorganisms

2014 AWWA ACE14: Uniting the World of Water - Boston, MA - June 8-11


Funding source water protection

Funding Source Water Protection

2014 AWWA ACE14: Uniting the World of Water - Boston, MA - June 8-11


Communities with established swp revenue

Communities with Established SWP Revenue

San Francisco, CA

Utility base budget

$50 million/ 10 years

Providence, RI

3 cents/100 gallons

$1.5-2 million/year

Denver, CO

33 cents/month

$3.3 million/year

Little Rock, AR

45 cents/month

~$1 million/year

Raleigh, NC

40 cents/month

$2 million/year

Flagstaff, AZ

$25 per $250k home, $50 per

$500k home, etc.

$10 million bond

San Antonio, TX

1/8 cent sales tax

$90 million cap

2014 AWWA ACE14: Uniting the World of Water - Boston, MA - June 8-11


Example of a successful fee project by the u s endowment

Example of a Successful Fee Project by The U.S. Endowment

  • Raleigh, NC Watershed Protection Fee

    • >300,000 people get drinking water from Falls Lake, Upper Neuse River Basin, NC

    • Watershed protection fee instituted in 2012

    • Average 40 cents/month/household

    • Generates $1.8 million annually for watershed protection

2014 AWWA ACE14: Uniting the World of Water - Boston, MA - June 8-11


Conservation ballot measures

Conservation Ballot Measures

  • In 2012, voters passed 81% of ballot measures, raising an estimated $767 million

  • Concern for public drinking water supplies (90%) and clean water (76%) always the top motivator for voters

  • The Endowment is working with The Trust for Public Land to expand this approach to more communities

2014 AWWA ACE14: Uniting the World of Water - Boston, MA - June 8-11


Resources collaboratives

Resources & Collaboratives

2014 AWWA ACE14: Uniting the World of Water - Boston, MA - June 8-11


Resources collaboratives1

Resources & Collaboratives

  • AWWA

    • G300 Standard for SWP (with guidebook): bit.ly/1kFpso3

    • Survey of large water systems regarding SWP

    • Exemplary SWP Awards

    • Forest Cover Impacts on the Cost of Water Treatment Project (co-funded by AWWA & The Endowment)

  • Source Water Collaborative: sourcewatercollaborative.org

    • Pilot projects (e.g., Salmon Falls, ME & NH; WI, WY, PA)

    • Working with State Conservationists (NRCS/NSDA)

  • State Source Water Collaboratives:

    • North Carolina Source Water Collaborative (ncswc.org)

    • Connecticut Source Water Collaborative (1.usa.gov/1gxJfk8)

    • Idaho Source Water Collaborative (protectthesource.org)

  • U.S. Forest Service – Forest to Faucets: 1.usa.gov/1egxHFD

2014 AWWA ACE14: Uniting the World of Water - Boston, MA - June 8-11


Source water protection through healthy forests

Resources & Collaboratives

Water Research Foundation: waterrf.org

Source Water Protection Vision and Roadmap

Source Water Protection Project: www.waterrf.org/resources/NewsletterStories/WaterProtectionWorkshop_fullArticle.html

World Resources Institute (WRI) Report: Natural Infrastructure (2013)

wri.org/publication/natural-infrastructure

Research partly funded by the U.S. Endowment

Identifies opportunities to protect source water by investing in natural infrastructure

2014 AWWA ACE14: Uniting the World of Water - Boston, MA - June 8-11


Source water protection through healthy forests

Resources & Collaboratives

The U.S. Endowment for Forestry and Communities Can:

  • Connect you with experts

  • Provide resources for community stakeholders

  • Work with you to explore options

  • Targeted funding

2014 AWWA ACE14: Uniting the World of Water - Boston, MA - June 8-11


Source water protection through healthy forests

“Perhaps the two most important lessons from experience to date are the power of individuals and the importance of partnerships. Ultimately, the most effective messengers are influential individuals within their own institutions.”

– Gartner, et al. 2013, Natural Infrastructure

“All politics is local” – Tip O’Neil

2014 AWWA ACE14: Uniting the World of Water - Boston, MA - June 8-11


Additional slides on awwa swp survey

Additional Slides on AWWA SWP Survey

The following slides contain additional information on the 2013 AWWA Source Water Protection survey


Awwa 2013 source water protection survey additional detailed information

AWWA 2013 Source Water Protection Survey – additional detailed information

Contact:

Adam T. Carpenter

Regulatory Analyst

202-326-6126

[email protected]


Population served

Population Served


Forested lands

Forested Lands


Public lands

Public Lands


Established swp program

Established SWP Program


Primary swp concerns

Primary SWP Concerns


Loss of forest cover

Loss of Forest Cover


Loss of forest cover continued

Loss of Forest Cover, continued


Cost benefit analysis

Cost-Benefit Analysis


Swp studies

SWP Studies


Swp improvement project funding

SWP Improvement Project Funding


Swp improvement projects

SWP Improvement Projects


Swp potential projects

SWP Potential Projects


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