Chapter 22 m rna stability and localization
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Chapter 22 m RNA Stability and Localization. 22.1 Introduction. 3′ untranslated region (UTR) – The untranslated sequence downstream from the coding region of an mRNA. 5′ untranslated region (UTR) – The untranslated sequence upstream from the coding region of an mRNA. 22.1 Introduction.

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Chapter 22 m RNA Stability and Localization

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Chapter 22 m rna stability and localization

Chapter 22mRNA Stability and Localization


22 1 introduction

22.1 Introduction

  • 3′ untranslated region (UTR) – The untranslated sequence downstream from the coding region of an mRNA.

  • 5′ untranslated region (UTR) – The untranslated sequence upstream from the coding region of an mRNA.


Chapter 22 m rna stability and localization

22.1 Introduction

Figure 22.01: Features of prokaryotic and eukaryotic mRNAs. (a) A typical bacterial mRNA.


22 1 introduction1

22.1 Introduction

  • stem-loop – A secondary structure that appears in RNAs consisting of a base-paired region (stem) and a terminal loop of single-stranded RNA.

    • Both are variable in size.


22 2 messenger rnas are unstable molecules

22.2 Messenger RNAs Are Unstable Molecules

  • mRNA instability is due to the action of ribonucleases.

  • Ribonucleases differ in their substrate preference and mode of attack.

  • endoribonuclease – A ribonuclease that cleaves an RNA at an internal site(s).

  • exoribonuclease – A ribonuclease that removes terminal ribonucleotides from RNA.

Figure 22.02: Types of ribonucleases. Exonucleases are unidirectional.


22 2 messenger rnas are unstable molecules1

22.2 Messenger RNAs Are Unstable Molecules

  • processive (nuclease) – An enzyme that remains associated with the substrate while catalyzing the sequential removal of nucleotides.

  • distributive (nuclease) – An enzyme that catalyzes the removal of only one or a few nucleotides before dissociating from the substrate.

  • mRNAs exhibit a wide range of half-lives.


Chapter 22 m rna stability and localization

22.2 Messenger RNAs Are Unstable Molecules

Figure 22.03: Method for determining mRNA half-lives.


22 2 messenger rnas are unstable molecules2

22.2 Messenger RNAs Are Unstable Molecules

  • mRNA decay – mRNA degradation, assuming that the degradation process is stochastic.

  • Differential mRNA stability is an important contributor to mRNA abundance and therefore the spectrum of proteins made in a cell.

  • steady state (molecular concentration) – The concentration of population of molecules when the rates of synthesis and degradation are constant.


22 3 eukaryotic mrnas exist in the form of mrnps from their birth to their death

mRNA associates with a changing population of proteins during its nuclear maturation and cytoplasmic life.

Some nuclear-acquired mRNP proteins have roles in the cytoplasm.

A very large number of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) exist, most of which remain uncharacterized.

Different mRNAs are associated with distinct, but overlapping, sets of regulatory proteins, creating RNA regulons.

22.3 Eukaryotic mRNAs Exist in the Form of mRNPs from Their Birth to Their Death


22 3 eukaryotic mrnas exist in the form of mrnps from their birth to their death1

22.3 Eukaryotic mRNAs Exist in the Form of mRNPs from Their Birth to Their Death

Figure 22.04: The concept of an RNA regulon.


22 4 prokaryotic mrna degradation involves multiple enzymes

22.4 Prokaryotic mRNA Degradation Involves Multiple Enzymes

  • polyribosome (or polysome) – An mRNA that is simultaneously being translated by multiple ribosomes.

  • monocistronic mRNA – mRNA that codes for one polypeptide.


22 4 prokaryotic mrna degradation involves multiple enzymes1

22.4 Prokaryotic mRNA Degradation Involves Multiple Enzymes

  • Degradation of bacterial mRNAs is initiated by removal of a pyrophosphate from the 5′ terminus.

  • Monophosphorylated mRNAs are degraded during translation in a two-step cycle involving endonucleolytic cleavages, followed by 3′ to 5′ digestion of the resulting fragments.

Figure 22.05: Degradation of bacterial mRNAs.


22 4 prokaryotic mrna degradation involves multiple enzymes2

22.4 Prokaryotic mRNA Degradation Involves Multiple Enzymes

  • 3′ polyadenylation can facilitate the degradation of mRNA fragments containing secondary structure.

  • poly(A)polymerase (PAP) – The enzyme that adds the stretch of polyadenylic acid to the 3′ end of eukaryotic mRNA.

    • It does not use a template.


22 4 prokaryotic mrna degradation involves multiple enzymes3

22.4 Prokaryotic mRNA Degradation Involves Multiple Enzymes

  • poly(A) – A stretch of adenylic acid that is added to the 3′ end of mRNA following its synthesis.

  • The main degradation enzymes work as a complex called the degradosome.


22 5 most eukaryotic mrna is degraded via two deadenylation dependent pathways

22.5 Most Eukaryotic mRNA is Degraded via Two Deadenylation-Dependent Pathways

  • The modifications at both ends of mRNA protect it against degradation by exonucleases.

  • poly(A)binding protein (PABP) – The protein that binds to the 3′ stretch of poly(A) on a eukaryotic mRNA.


22 5 most eukaryotic mrna is degraded via two deadenylation dependent pathways1

22.5 Most Eukaryotic mRNA is Degraded via Two Deadenylation-Dependent Pathways

  • The two major mRNA decay pathways are initiated by deadenylation catalyzed by poly(A) nucleases.

  • Deadenylation may be followed either by decapping and 5′ to 3′ exonuclease digestion, or by 3′ to 5′ exonuclease digestion.

Figure 22.06: The major deadenylation-dependent decay pathways in eukaryotes.


22 5 most eukaryotic mrna is degraded via two deadenylation dependent pathways2

22.5 Most Eukaryotic mRNA is Degraded via Two Deadenylation-Dependent Pathways

  • The decappingenzyme competes with the translation initiation complex for 5′ cap binding.

  • cytoplasmic cap-binding protein – A component of the eukaryotic initiation factor 4F (eIF4F) that binds the 7-methyl guanosine cap at the 5′ end of eukaryotic mRNA.

  • The exosome, which catalyzes 3′ to 5′ mRNA digestion, is a large, evolutionarily conserved complex.


22 5 most eukaryotic mrna is degraded via two deadenylation dependent pathways3

22.5 Most Eukaryotic mRNA is Degraded via Two Deadenylation-Dependent Pathways

  • Degradation may occur within discrete cytoplasmic particles called processing bodies (PBs).

  • A variety of particles containing translationally repressed mRNAs exist in different cell types.


22 6 other degradation pathways target specific mrnas

22.6 Other Degradation Pathways Target Specific mRNAs

  • Four additional degradation pathways involve regulated degradation of specific mRNAs.

  • Deadenylation-independent decapping proceeds in the presence of a long poly(A) tail.


22 6 other degradation pathways target specific mrnas1

22.6 Other Degradation Pathways Target Specific mRNAs

Figure 22.08: Other decay pathways in eukaryotic cells. The initiating event for each pathway is illustrated.


22 6 other degradation pathways target specific mrnas2

22.6 Other Degradation Pathways Target Specific mRNAs

  • The degradation of the nonpolyadenylated histone mRNAs is initiated by 3′ addition of a poly(U) tail.

  • Degradation of some mRNAs may be initiated by sequence-specific or structure-specific endonucleolytic cleavage.

  • An unknown number of mRNAs are targets for degradation or translational repression by microRNAs (miRNAs).


22 6 other degradation pathways target specific mrnas3

22.6 Other Degradation Pathways Target Specific mRNAs

Figure 22.09: Table summarizing key elements of mRNA decay pathways in eukaryotic cells.


22 7 mrna specific half lives are controlled by sequences or structures within the mrna

22.7 mRNA-Specific Half-Lives Are Controlled by Sequences or Structures Within the mRNA

  • Specific cis-elements in an mRNA affect its rate of degradation.

  • Destabilizing elements (DEs) can accelerate mRNA decay, while stabilizing elements (SEs) can reduce it.


22 7 mrna specific half lives are controlled by sequences or structures within the mrna1

22.7 mRNA-Specific Half-Lives Are Controlled by Sequences or Structures Within the mRNA

Figure 22.10: Mechanisms by which destabilizing elements (DEs) and stabilizing elements (SEs) function.


22 7 mrna specific half lives are controlled by sequences or structures within the mrna2

22.7 mRNA-Specific Half-Lives Are Controlled by Sequences or Structures Within the mRNA

  • AU-rich elements (AREs) are common destabilizing elements in mammals, and are bound by a variety of proteins.

  • Some DE-binding proteins interact with components of the decay machinery and probably recruit them for degradation.

  • Stabilizing elements occur on some highly stable mRNAs.


22 7 mrna specific half lives are controlled by sequences or structures within the mrna3

22.7 mRNA-Specific Half-Lives Are Controlled by Sequences or Structures Within the mRNA

  • mRNA degradation rates can be altered in response to a variety of signals.

  • iron-response element (IRE) – A cis sequence found in certain mRNAs whose stability or translation is regulated by cellular iron concentration.


22 7 mrna specific half lives are controlled by sequences or structures within the mrna4

22.7 mRNA-Specific Half-Lives Are Controlled by Sequences or Structures Within the mRNA

Figure 22.11: Regulation of transferring mRNA stability by iron levels.


22 8 newly synthesized rnas are checked for defects via a nuclear surveillance system

22.8 Newly Synthesized RNAs Are Checked for Defects via a Nuclear Surveillance System

  • Aberrant nuclear RNAs are identified and destroyed by an RNA surveillance system.

  • The nuclear exosome functions both in the processing of normal substrate RNAs and in the destruction of aberrant RNAs.

  • The yeast TRAMP complex recruits the exosome to aberrant RNAs and facilitates its 3′ to 5′ exonuclease activity.


22 8 newly synthesized rnas are checked for defects via a nuclear surveillance system1

22.8 Newly Synthesized RNAs Are Checked for Defects via a Nuclear Surveillance System

  • oligo(A) tail – a short poly(A) tail, generally referring to a stretch of less than 15 adenylates.

  • Substrates for TRAMP-exosome degradation include unspliced or aberrantly spliced pre-mRNAs and improperly terminated RNA Pol II transcripts lacking a poly(A) tail.


22 8 newly synthesized rnas are checked for defects via a nuclear surveillance system2

22.8 Newly Synthesized RNAs Are Checked for Defects via a Nuclear Surveillance System

Figure 22.12: The role of TRAMP and the exosome in degrading aberrant nuclear RNAs.


22 8 newly synthesized rnas are checked for defects via a nuclear surveillance system3

22.8 Newly Synthesized RNAs Are Checked for Defects via a Nuclear Surveillance System

  • The majority of RNA Pol II transcripts may be cryptic unstable transcripts (CUTs) that are rapidly destroyed in the nucleus.


22 9 quality control of mrna translation is performed by cytoplasmic surveillance systems

22.9 Quality Control of mRNA Translation Is Performed by Cytoplasmic Surveillance Systems

  • release factor (RF) – A protein required to terminate polypeptide translation to cause release of the completed polypeptide chain and the ribosome from mRNA.

  • Nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) targets mRNAs with premature stop codons.

  • Targeting of NMD substrates requires a conserved set of Upf and SMG proteins.


22 9 quality control of mrna translation is performed by cytoplasmic surveillance systems1

22.9 Quality Control of mRNA Translation Is Performed by Cytoplasmic Surveillance Systems

  • Recognition of a termination codon as premature involves unusual 3′ UTR structure or length in many organisms and the presence of downstream exon junction complexes (EJC) in mammals.

  • pioneer round of translation – The first translation event for a newly synthesized and exported mRNA.


22 9 quality control of mrna translation is performed by cytoplasmic surveillance systems2

22.9 Quality Control of mRNA Translation Is Performed by Cytoplasmic Surveillance Systems

Figure 22.14: Two mechanisms by which a termination codon is recognized as premature.


22 9 quality control of mrna translation is performed by cytoplasmic surveillance systems3

22.9 Quality Control of mRNA Translation Is Performed by Cytoplasmic Surveillance Systems

  • Nonstop decay (NSD) targets mRNAs lacking an in-frame termination codon and requires a conserved set of SKI proteins.

  • No-go decay (NGD) targets mRNAs with stalled ribosomes in their coding regions.


22 9 quality control of mrna translation is performed by cytoplasmic surveillance systems4

22.9 Quality Control of mRNA Translation Is Performed by Cytoplasmic Surveillance Systems

Figure 22.13: Substrates for cytoplasmic surveillance systems.


22 10 some eukaryotic mrnas are localized to specific regions of a cell

22.10 Some Eukaryotic mRNAs Are Localized to Specific Regions of a Cell

  • Localization of mRNAs serves diverse functions in single cells and developing embryos.

  • mRNP granules – Large mRNA-containing cytoplasmic particles, such as processing bodies (P bodies), stress granules, and neuronal granules.

  • Three mechanisms for the localization of mRNA have been documented.


22 10 translationally silenced mrnas are sequestered in a variety of rna granules

22.10 Translationally Silenced mRNAs Are Sequestered in a Variety of RNA Granules

  • RNA granules are formed by aggregation of translationally silenced mRNA and many different proteins.

  • Germ cell granules and neuronal granules function in translational repression and transport.

  • Processing bodies (PBs) containing mRNA decay components are present in most or all cells.

  • Stress granules (SGs) accumulate in response to stress-induced inhibition of translation.


22 11 some eukaryotic mrnas are localized to specific regions of a cell

22.11 Some Eukaryotic mRNAs Are Localized to Specific Regions of a Cell

  • Localization of mRNAs serves diverse functions in single cells and developing embryos.

  • Three mechanisms for the localization of mRNA have been documented.

  • Localization requires cis-elements on the target mRNA and trans-factors to mediate the localization.

  • zipcode (or localization signal) – Any of the number of mRNA cis elements involved in directing cellular localization.

  • The predominant active transport mechanism involves the directed movement of mRNPs along cytoskeletal tracks.


22 11 some eukaryotic mrnas are localized to specific regions of a cell1

22.11 Some Eukaryotic mRNAs Are Localized to Specific Regions of a Cell

Figure 22.16: Three main functions of mRNA localization.


22 11 some eukaryotic mrnas are localized to specific regions of a cell2

22.11 Some Eukaryotic mRNAs Are Localized to Specific Regions of a Cell

Figure 22.17: Localization of Ash1 mRNA.


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