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Engineers: Creating the World that Never Was. National Charter Schools Conference July 1, 2013 Dr . Anne Spence Mechanical Engineering. NAE, 2009. NAE Committee on K-12 Engineering Education. Engineering in K-12 Education: Understanding the Status and Improving the Prospects

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engineers creating the world that never was

Engineers: Creating the World that Never Was

National Charter Schools Conference

July 1, 2013

Dr. Anne Spence

Mechanical Engineering

nae committee on k 12 engineering education

NAE, 2009

NAE Committee on K-12 Engineering Education
  • Engineering in K-12 Education: Understanding the Status and Improving the Prospects
    • Chaired by Dr. Linda Katehi, UC Davis
    • Published by NAE 2009
the case for k 12 engineering education

NAE, 2009

The Case for K-12 Engineering Education
  • Improved learning and achievement in science and mathematics
  • Increased awareness of engineering and the work of engineers
  • Understanding of and the ability to engage in engineering design
  • Interest in pursuing engineering as a career
  • Increased technological literacy
general principles for k 12 engineering education

NAE, 2009

General Principles for K-12 Engineering Education
  • K-12 engineering education should emphasize engineering design
  • K-12 engineering education should incorporate important and developmentally appropriate mathematics, science, and technology knowledge and skills
  • K-12 engineering education should promote engineering habits of mind
emphasize engineering design

NAE, 2009

Emphasize engineering design
  • Highly iterative
  • Open to the idea that a problem may have multiple solutions
  • Meaningful context for learning scientific, mathematical and technological concepts
  • Stimulus to systems thinking, modeling and analysis
reflection
Reflection
  • How does your current teaching of science, mathematics and technology in K-12 emphasize engineering design?
mathematics science and technology

NAE, 2009

Mathematics, science, and technology
  • Science concepts and inquiry methods support engineering design activities
  • Mathematical concepts and computational methods support engineering design activities in analysis and modeling
  • Technology and technological concepts
    • Illustrate the outcomes of engineering design
    • Provide opportunities for “reverse engineering” activities
    • Encourage consideration of social, environmental, and other impacts of engineering design decisions
promote engineering habits of mind

NAE, 2009

Promote engineering habits of mind
  • Systems thinking
  • Creativity
  • Optimism
  • Collaboration
  • Communication
  • Attention to ethical considerations
reflection1
Reflection
  • How does your current teaching of science, mathematics and technology in K-12 emphasize engineering habits of mind?
the scope of k 12 engineering education

NAE, 2009

The Scope of K-12 Engineering Education
  • Student exposure to engineering-related course work
    • First formal programs in the early 1990’s
    • Fewer than 6 million students have had some kind of formal engineering education
    • In 2008, 56 million students in K-12
  • Teachers involved in K-12 engineering education
    • 18,000 have received pre- or in-service professional development to teach engineering-related course work
    • Small number of inititiatives
impacts of k 12 engineering education

NAE, 2009

Impacts of K-12 Engineering Education
  • Improved performance in related subjects such as science and mathematics
  • Increase technological literacy
  • Improvements in school attendance and retention
  • Better understanding of what engineers do
  • Increase in number of students who pursue careers in engineering
  • WARNING: limited reliable data available to support claims
the nature of k 12 engineering education

NAE, 2009

The Nature of K-12 Engineering Education
  • Curriculum content
  • Curriculum connections
  • Professional development programs
  • Diversity
reflection2
Reflection
  • How do you tackle the issue of curriculum connections in K-12?
policy and program issues

NAE, 2009

Policy and Program Issues
  • Ad hoc infusion into existing science, mathematics, and technology curricula
    • Willingness of teachers
    • Access to instructional materials
  • Stand alone courses
    • Electives or replace existing science or technology course
    • Extensive teacher professional development
  • Fully integrated STEM education
    • Changes in structure and practice of schools
engineering habits of mind

STEM Standards

Engineering Habits of Mind
  • Collaboration – peer review; team assessments
  • Optimism – reflect on opportunities
  • Communication – oral; written; within teams
  • Creativity – develop brainstorming skills
  • Attention to ethical consideration – teams consider impact of designs
engineering design process

STEM Standards

Engineering Design Process
  • Apply process in interdisciplinary problem solving
  • Use models in multiple subject areas
  • Incorporate alternative viewpoints
systems thinking

STEM Standards

Systems Thinking
  • Explain how parts relate to each other, and how parts, or combination of parts, contribute to the function of the system as a whole (Elementary)
  • Analyze how the individual parts function, how parts relate to each other, and how parts, or combinations of parts, contribute to the function of the system as a whole (Middle)
  • Analyze the relationships among systems that are embedded within larger technological, social, natural, environmental, etc. systems (High)
problem solving

STEM Standards

Problem Solving
  • Students apply multiple-solution approaches to problems to eliminate extraneous information
  • Teachers generate problems that require the elimination of extraneous information and the identification of assumptions to arrive at solutions
  • Students analyze problems to identify interdisciplinary solutions to global issues.
reflection3
Reflection
  • How do you approach problem solving in K-12?
  • Is it a method?
  • Is all information given?
effective teacher preparation and professional development

Teacher Preparation

Effective Teacher Preparation and Professional Development
  • Content professionals teach courses
  • Introduce engineering principles
  • Focus on the design process
  • Make science/mathematics connections
  • Conduct ongoing training
  • Train counselors
preparation of k 12 teachers

Teacher Preparation

Preparation of K-12 Teachers
  • Elementary school teachers
    • Very little science and mathematics
    • No introduction to engineering
  • Secondary teachers
    • BS/BA in discipline (mathematics/science)
    • Technology education
      • Few mathematics and science skills
      • Cannot connect engineering to science and mathematics
innovative preparation of k 12 teachers at umbc

Teacher Preparation

Innovative Preparation of K-12 Teachers at UMBC
  • Elementary school teachers
    • Elementary STEM Education program
    • Cross-disciplinary
    • More courses in mathematics/science
    • Introduction to engineering
  • Secondary teachers
    • BS Engineering and Technology Education
    • Mathematics through differential equations
    • Physics and chemistry
    • Statics, mechanics, fluids, design
middle and high school curriculum

Curriculum

Middle and high school curriculum
  • Mathematics and science
  • English and social studies
  • Foreign language
  • Technology education
    • No longer wood shop/metal shop
    • Not always making math/science connections
engineering in the curriculum middle and high school

Curriculum

Engineering in the Curriculum: Middle and High School
  • Requires trained teachers
  • Satisfies Technology Education requirements
  • Challenging to find quality teachers
  • Example programs
    • Project Lead the Way
    • Engineering by Design (ITEEA)
    • The Infinity Project
    • INSPIRES
    • Others?
example project lead the way curriculum

Curriculum

Example: Project Lead the Way Curriculum
  • Project and problem based learning
  • Curriculum tied to national standards in science, mathematics, technology education
  • Middle school – 6 units
  • High school – 4 year program
  • Co-requisite mathematics
  • College credit for engineering
  • National college credit exams
slide26

100

Seniors in

PLTW®

80

courses

60

Average

Seniors

40

80% say they will

study engineering, technology, or computer science

20

0

College Going Rate

Curriculum

Over 97% of seniors in PLTW® courses plan to attend a university, college, or community college, compared with 67% for average seniors.

True Outcomes Annual Assessment Report 2007-2008

engineering outside the curriculum middle and high school

Curriculum

Engineering Outside the Curriculum: Middle and High School
  • Encourages professional mentors
  • Example programs
    • FIRST Robotics
    • VEX Robotics
    • Junior Engineering Technical Society (JETS)
    • Future City
    • ACE Mentor Program
engineering in the curriculum elementary school

Curriculum

Engineering in the Curriculum: Elementary School
  • Teachers are intimidated by concepts
  • Design process can be simplified
  • Science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) are more easily integrated
  • Early exposure to engineering careers
  • Example programs
    • Engineering is Elementary (MOS)
    • Children Designing and Engineering (TCNJ)
example engineering is elementary curriculum

Curriculum

Example: Engineering is Elementary Curriculum
  • Promote learning and teaching of engineering and technology
  • Research based curricular materials for grades 1-5
  • Integrate engineering and technology concepts and skills with elementary science lessons
  • Storybooks, lesson plans
research findings

EiE

Research Findings
  • EiE students
    • Are more likely to identify engineering items related to the design of all types of technology
    • Have a better understanding of the engineering design process
    • Have a better understanding of what a process is and how it is a type of technology
research findings1

EiE

Research Findings
  • Teachers strongly agree that
    • EiE units are well designed
    • EiE units fit into the required curriculum rather than being another thing to teach
    • EiE units are well matched to the level of the students
    • EiE units work well with all students
    • EiE units have changed the way that they teach
engineering outside the curriculum elementary school

Curriculum

Engineering Outside the Curriculum: Elementary School
  • Encourages professional mentors
  • Example programs
    • FIRST LEGO League
    • Jr. FIRST LEGO League
    • Engineering Challenges (BMI)
    • Sea Perch (MIT)
history has shown

Students

History has shown
  • Most engineering majors have a family member who is an engineer
  • Few women are interested
  • Engineering is often not portrayed as a viable career
  • We must change the message …
changing the conversation nae

Students

Changing the Conversation (NAE)
  • Engineers make a world of difference
  • Life takes engineering
  • The power to do
  • Because dreams need doing
reflection4
Reflection
  • How will you incorporate engineering education in your teaching?
contact information
Contact Information
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