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Engineers: Creating the World that Never Was. National Charter Schools Conference July 1, 2013 Dr . Anne Spence Mechanical Engineering. NAE, 2009. NAE Committee on K-12 Engineering Education. Engineering in K-12 Education: Understanding the Status and Improving the Prospects

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Engineers creating the world that never was

Engineers: Creating the World that Never Was

National Charter Schools Conference

July 1, 2013

Dr. Anne Spence

Mechanical Engineering


Nae committee on k 12 engineering education

NAE, 2009

NAE Committee on K-12 Engineering Education

  • Engineering in K-12 Education: Understanding the Status and Improving the Prospects

    • Chaired by Dr. Linda Katehi, UC Davis

    • Published by NAE 2009


The case for k 12 engineering education

NAE, 2009

The Case for K-12 Engineering Education

  • Improved learning and achievement in science and mathematics

  • Increased awareness of engineering and the work of engineers

  • Understanding of and the ability to engage in engineering design

  • Interest in pursuing engineering as a career

  • Increased technological literacy


General principles for k 12 engineering education

NAE, 2009

General Principles for K-12 Engineering Education

  • K-12 engineering education should emphasize engineering design

  • K-12 engineering education should incorporate important and developmentally appropriate mathematics, science, and technology knowledge and skills

  • K-12 engineering education should promote engineering habits of mind


Emphasize engineering design

NAE, 2009

Emphasize engineering design

  • Highly iterative

  • Open to the idea that a problem may have multiple solutions

  • Meaningful context for learning scientific, mathematical and technological concepts

  • Stimulus to systems thinking, modeling and analysis


Reflection
Reflection

  • How does your current teaching of science, mathematics and technology in K-12 emphasize engineering design?


Mathematics science and technology

NAE, 2009

Mathematics, science, and technology

  • Science concepts and inquiry methods support engineering design activities

  • Mathematical concepts and computational methods support engineering design activities in analysis and modeling

  • Technology and technological concepts

    • Illustrate the outcomes of engineering design

    • Provide opportunities for “reverse engineering” activities

    • Encourage consideration of social, environmental, and other impacts of engineering design decisions


Promote engineering habits of mind

NAE, 2009

Promote engineering habits of mind

  • Systems thinking

  • Creativity

  • Optimism

  • Collaboration

  • Communication

  • Attention to ethical considerations


Reflection1
Reflection

  • How does your current teaching of science, mathematics and technology in K-12 emphasize engineering habits of mind?


The scope of k 12 engineering education

NAE, 2009

The Scope of K-12 Engineering Education

  • Student exposure to engineering-related course work

    • First formal programs in the early 1990’s

    • Fewer than 6 million students have had some kind of formal engineering education

    • In 2008, 56 million students in K-12

  • Teachers involved in K-12 engineering education

    • 18,000 have received pre- or in-service professional development to teach engineering-related course work

    • Small number of inititiatives


Impacts of k 12 engineering education

NAE, 2009

Impacts of K-12 Engineering Education

  • Improved performance in related subjects such as science and mathematics

  • Increase technological literacy

  • Improvements in school attendance and retention

  • Better understanding of what engineers do

  • Increase in number of students who pursue careers in engineering

  • WARNING: limited reliable data available to support claims


The nature of k 12 engineering education

NAE, 2009

The Nature of K-12 Engineering Education

  • Curriculum content

  • Curriculum connections

  • Professional development programs

  • Diversity


Reflection2
Reflection

  • How do you tackle the issue of curriculum connections in K-12?


Policy and program issues

NAE, 2009

Policy and Program Issues

  • Ad hoc infusion into existing science, mathematics, and technology curricula

    • Willingness of teachers

    • Access to instructional materials

  • Stand alone courses

    • Electives or replace existing science or technology course

    • Extensive teacher professional development

  • Fully integrated STEM education

    • Changes in structure and practice of schools


Engineering habits of mind

STEM Standards

Engineering Habits of Mind

  • Collaboration – peer review; team assessments

  • Optimism – reflect on opportunities

  • Communication – oral; written; within teams

  • Creativity – develop brainstorming skills

  • Attention to ethical consideration – teams consider impact of designs


Engineering design process

STEM Standards

Engineering Design Process

  • Apply process in interdisciplinary problem solving

  • Use models in multiple subject areas

  • Incorporate alternative viewpoints


Systems thinking

STEM Standards

Systems Thinking

  • Explain how parts relate to each other, and how parts, or combination of parts, contribute to the function of the system as a whole (Elementary)

  • Analyze how the individual parts function, how parts relate to each other, and how parts, or combinations of parts, contribute to the function of the system as a whole (Middle)

  • Analyze the relationships among systems that are embedded within larger technological, social, natural, environmental, etc. systems (High)


Problem solving

STEM Standards

Problem Solving

  • Students apply multiple-solution approaches to problems to eliminate extraneous information

  • Teachers generate problems that require the elimination of extraneous information and the identification of assumptions to arrive at solutions

  • Students analyze problems to identify interdisciplinary solutions to global issues.


Reflection3
Reflection

  • How do you approach problem solving in K-12?

  • Is it a method?

  • Is all information given?


Effective teacher preparation and professional development

Teacher Preparation

Effective Teacher Preparation and Professional Development

  • Content professionals teach courses

  • Introduce engineering principles

  • Focus on the design process

  • Make science/mathematics connections

  • Conduct ongoing training

  • Train counselors


Preparation of k 12 teachers

Teacher Preparation

Preparation of K-12 Teachers

  • Elementary school teachers

    • Very little science and mathematics

    • No introduction to engineering

  • Secondary teachers

    • BS/BA in discipline (mathematics/science)

    • Technology education

      • Few mathematics and science skills

      • Cannot connect engineering to science and mathematics


Innovative preparation of k 12 teachers at umbc

Teacher Preparation

Innovative Preparation of K-12 Teachers at UMBC

  • Elementary school teachers

    • Elementary STEM Education program

    • Cross-disciplinary

    • More courses in mathematics/science

    • Introduction to engineering

  • Secondary teachers

    • BS Engineering and Technology Education

    • Mathematics through differential equations

    • Physics and chemistry

    • Statics, mechanics, fluids, design


Middle and high school curriculum

Curriculum

Middle and high school curriculum

  • Mathematics and science

  • English and social studies

  • Foreign language

  • Technology education

    • No longer wood shop/metal shop

    • Not always making math/science connections


Engineering in the curriculum middle and high school

Curriculum

Engineering in the Curriculum: Middle and High School

  • Requires trained teachers

  • Satisfies Technology Education requirements

  • Challenging to find quality teachers

  • Example programs

    • Project Lead the Way

    • Engineering by Design (ITEEA)

    • The Infinity Project

    • INSPIRES

    • Others?


Example project lead the way curriculum

Curriculum

Example: Project Lead the Way Curriculum

  • Project and problem based learning

  • Curriculum tied to national standards in science, mathematics, technology education

  • Middle school – 6 units

  • High school – 4 year program

  • Co-requisite mathematics

  • College credit for engineering

  • National college credit exams


100

Seniors in

PLTW®

80

courses

60

Average

Seniors

40

80% say they will

study engineering, technology, or computer science

20

0

College Going Rate

Curriculum

Over 97% of seniors in PLTW® courses plan to attend a university, college, or community college, compared with 67% for average seniors.

True Outcomes Annual Assessment Report 2007-2008


Engineering outside the curriculum middle and high school

Curriculum

Engineering Outside the Curriculum: Middle and High School

  • Encourages professional mentors

  • Example programs

    • FIRST Robotics

    • VEX Robotics

    • Junior Engineering Technical Society (JETS)

    • Future City

    • ACE Mentor Program


Engineering in the curriculum elementary school

Curriculum

Engineering in the Curriculum: Elementary School

  • Teachers are intimidated by concepts

  • Design process can be simplified

  • Science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) are more easily integrated

  • Early exposure to engineering careers

  • Example programs

    • Engineering is Elementary (MOS)

    • Children Designing and Engineering (TCNJ)


Example engineering is elementary curriculum

Curriculum

Example: Engineering is Elementary Curriculum

  • Promote learning and teaching of engineering and technology

  • Research based curricular materials for grades 1-5

  • Integrate engineering and technology concepts and skills with elementary science lessons

  • Storybooks, lesson plans


Research findings

EiE

Research Findings

  • EiE students

    • Are more likely to identify engineering items related to the design of all types of technology

    • Have a better understanding of the engineering design process

    • Have a better understanding of what a process is and how it is a type of technology


Research findings1

EiE

Research Findings

  • Teachers strongly agree that

    • EiE units are well designed

    • EiE units fit into the required curriculum rather than being another thing to teach

    • EiE units are well matched to the level of the students

    • EiE units work well with all students

    • EiE units have changed the way that they teach


Engineering outside the curriculum elementary school

Curriculum

Engineering Outside the Curriculum: Elementary School

  • Encourages professional mentors

  • Example programs

    • FIRST LEGO League

    • Jr. FIRST LEGO League

    • Engineering Challenges (BMI)

    • Sea Perch (MIT)



History has shown

Students

History has shown

  • Most engineering majors have a family member who is an engineer

  • Few women are interested

  • Engineering is often not portrayed as a viable career

  • We must change the message …


Changing the conversation nae

Students

Changing the Conversation (NAE)

  • Engineers make a world of difference

  • Life takes engineering

  • The power to do

  • Because dreams need doing


Reflection4
Reflection

  • How will you incorporate engineering education in your teaching?





Http www teachengineering org
http://www.teachengineering.org


Contact information
Contact Information

  • Dr. Anne Spence

  • Dept of Mechanical Engineering

  • UMBC

  • [email protected]

  • 410-455-3308


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