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ANIMAL WELFARE. ELISTA Education 2011. The Freedom from Hunger & Thirst. Freedom from Hunger and Thirst. Doing little harm, but little good. No provision of Freedom. Optimal Welfare. Dehydrated Starved Malnourished. Good quality balanced diet appropriate to specie and life stage

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Animal welfare

ANIMAL WELFARE

ELISTA Education 2011


Animal welfare

The Freedom from Hunger & Thirst


Freedom from hunger and thirst

Freedom from Hunger and Thirst

Doing little harm, but little good

No provision of Freedom

Optimal Welfare

  • Dehydrated

  • Starved

  • Malnourished

  • Good quality balanced diet appropriate to specie and life stage

  • Clean fresh water available at all times

  • Mechanism of provision

Poor quality/less appropriate food

Potentially prevent freedom from pain, injury and disease


Optimal welfare

Optimal Welfare

  • Suitable supply of balanced diet

  • Access to water

  • Mechanism of feed and water (pm)

  • Suitable to life stage/special dietary requirements (pm)


A balanced diet

A Balanced Diet

Is made up of essential “nutrients” which allow the body of an animal to function and be maintained at the level appropriate to that individuals live stage or activity level.

Nutrient=“source of nourishment…”

To Nourish=“To provide…necessary for life and growth”

www.the freedictionary.com


A balanced diet1

A Balanced Diet…

  • Protein

  • Carbohydrates

  • Fat

  • Vitamins

  • Minerals

  • Water


Protein

Protein

  • Made up of compounds C, H, O, N and occasionally S

  • Different sequences of compounds make amino acids

    e.g Phe= Phenylalanine

    Arg= Arginine

    There are both ‘essential’ and ‘non-essential’ amino acids. Essential amino acids must be provided in the diet as not made in the body, non-essential amino acids are made through essential ones.

    Essential amino acids are required for protein synthesis (production of all cell tissue +DNA)


Protein1

Protein

  • Protein is broken down by pepsin and trypsin (within pancreatic juice) in small intestine.

The pancreas varies in size and in proportion to the rest of the animal depending on specie and gives an indication to the protein requirements.


Protein functions

ProteinFunctions

  • Protein Synthesis

  • Growth

  • Tissue maintenance and repair

  • Hormones and Enzymes

  • Components of Immune System


Protein deficiency

ProteinDeficiency

  • Reduced growth of young animals

  • Weight Loss

  • Reduced Performance/Ability or Production

  • Bad condition of coat, hooves, nails/claws

  • Impaired Immune System

  • Appetite Depravity (may eat own faeces)

    Excess protein can promote fast growth rate and possibly weight gain. Poor quality Protein can be converted to energy


Protein types

ProteinTypes

Generally categorised as HIGH biological value (HBV) or LOW biological value (LBV) protein.

Typically meat= HBV

cereals, nuts, pulses=LBV

Exceptions e.g Soya.

HBV is easier to digest.


Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates

  • Made up of compounds

    C, H, and O

  • Monosaccharides (simple sugars)

    e.g Glucose, Fructose, Galactose

  • Disaccharides

    e.g Sucrose, Maltose, Lactose

  • Polysaccharides (complex)

    e.g Starch and Cellulose

    Starch has a lot of ‘alpha’ joined glucose making it very soluble

    Cellulose has a lot of ‘beta’ joined glucose. Only rumen/caecum micro organisms can break this down


Carbohydrates1

Carbohydrates

  • Carbohydrates are first broken down by salivary amylase and then the intestines or similar.

Digestive systems of animals are adapted to break down the carbohydrates of their diet.


Carbohydrate functions

CarbohydrateFunctions

  • Provide Energy

  • System working and maintenance; brain,

    heart, nervous, digestive and immune

  • Fibre, which is also a form of carbohydrate, is essential for the elimination of waste materials and toxins from the body and helps to keep the intestines disease-free and clean.


Carbohydrate deficiency

CarbohydrateDeficiency

  • Lack of Energy

  • Potential kidney problems due to the breakdown of additional acid produced from cells functioning without glucose

  • Use of protein as energy, possible muscle wastage


Animal welfare

Fat

  • Compounds C, H, O

  • Found as triglycerides

  • Source of the essential fatty acids;

  • Linoleic, Linolenic and Arachidonic

  • (important in endocrine and immune system)

  • Saturated fats are typically ‘solid’ (in meat and meat by products)

  • Unsaturated fats are more so ‘oils’ (in nuts, plant material)

glycerol


Animal welfare

Fat

  • Fat is broken down by bile (produced in gall bladder) in the stomach and lipase (within pancreatic juice) in small intestine.

  • Fatty acids broken down from triclycerides in the digestive system move through the blood and lymph system to reform into triclycerides and be stored in tissue and specialised cells.

  • Fat stores can be utilised if necessary for energy.


Fat functions

FatFunctions

  • Carry electrons (part of atoms)

  • Component of cell membranes (as lipids)

  • Store for some vitamins

  • Energy

  • Insulation

  • Normal functioning of body systems (esp. Immune and Endocrine)


Fat deficiency

FatDeficiency

  • Poor coat

  • Flaky skin

  • Hair Loss

  • Impaired Reproductive Efficiency


Vitamins

Vitamins

  • Fat soluble or Water Soluble

    • Source

    • Function

    • Deficiency

    • Toxicity/Excess


Vitamin a fat soluble

Vitamin A (Fat Soluble)

  • Source:Liver, egg yolk, milk,(precursor, converted in wall of small intestine-B carotene found in)green forage leaves.

  • Function:Night vision, healthy skin cells, bone formation, reproduction, immune system

  • Deficiency:Reduced feed and growth rate, dry rough brittle coat, poor night vision, hyperkeratinization of cornea and skin, respiratory infections, poor reproductionExcess:Hypervitaminosis A, Bone problems, loss of hair and skin, other vitamin inbalances


Vitamin d fat soluble

Vitamin D (Fat Soluble)

  • Source:From the sun

  • Function:Utilised in kidneys, bones and intestine to maintain Ca and P levels in plasma

  • Deficiency:Same as Calcuim and Phosphorus; rickets, osteomalacia

  • Excess:Excessive Ca and P deposits


Vitamin e fat soluble

Vitamin E (Fat Soluble)

  • Source:Green Forage, Grass and oil seeds

  • Function:Block free radical attack to cells, a barrier at cell wall

  • Deficiency:Impaired reproduction in some species (same as Selenium)

  • Excess:Toxicity rare


Vitamin k fat soluble

Vitamin K (Fat Soluble)

  • Source: K1-Produced by bacteria

    K2-Green Leafy Plants

  • Function:Involved in blood clotting

  • Deficiency:Impaired blood clotting (rare)

  • Excess: Blood related problems


Vitamin b s water soluble

Vitamin B’s (Water Soluble)

  • Types: Vitamin B complex includes:

    Thiamine (B1), Riboflavin (B2), Folic Acid (B9)alsoB3,5,6,7,12

  • Source:Most B vitamins are synthesises in the gut (B12 from Cobalt), all but B12 are also found in most unprocessed food

  • Function:Involved in metabolism of protein, carbohydrates, fat and haemoglobin. Vit B12 used to convert the acid produced by intestinal microbes of ruminants to glucose.

  • Deficiency:Many deficiencies conditions in humans, animals less affected, although deficiency in B12 can affect ruminants

  • Excess:Toxicity is rare


Vitamin c water soluble ascrobic acid

Vitamin C (Water Soluble)Ascrobic Acid

  • Source:Plants and Fruits, synthesised in body by majority of animals

  • Function:Required for enzyme activity, acts as antioxidant, for production of collagen for skin

  • Deficiency:Scurvy

  • Excess:Toxicity rare as not stored


Minerals

Minerals

  • Macro-minerals (required in larger quantity)

    -Ca, P, K, Na, Cl, S, Mg

  • Micro-minerals (trace elements required in tiny quantity)

    • -Cu, Zn, Fe, Co, Se


Calcium phosphorus

Calcium & Phosphorus

  • Interconnected in function; Bone, muscle, nerve production and function


Sodium potassium

Sodium & Potassium

  • Interrelated; Involved in pH balance and osmosis (body fluid regulation)


Copper

Copper

  • Important in many enzyme actions including production of Melanin, Iron into bloodstream and Respiration (o2 to CO2)


Selenium

Selenium

  • Works closely with Vitamin E, helps in production of antioxidants to fight against free-radicals


Animal welfare

Iron

  • Component of Haemoglobin

  • Excreted when not required


Water

Water

  • Compounds of 2 H and 1 O

  • Found in food, drink and through metabolic processes

  • Lost through Faeces, Urine, Lungs, Skin, Milk


Water functions

WaterFunctions

  • Transport of materials in body

  • Solvent

  • Heat exchange (evaporation from skin and lungs)

  • Excretion (urine and sweat)

  • Hydrolysis (splitting of water for H protons)


Animal welfare

How do we know the feed we are providing is ‘balanced’?


How do we know the food we eat is appropriate for us

How do we know the food we eat is appropriate for us?

  • Make ourselves knowledgeable

  • Pay attention to experts

  • Trial and error (see what works)

  • Personal Preference (Palatability)…

    We should aim to

    do the

    same for our

    animals!


Making ourselves knowledgeable

Making ourselves knowledgeable…

Researching such as…

  • Natural feeding Substrates

  • Natural feeding methods

  • Specie / Breed lifestyle

  • Breed predispositions

  • Individual animal


Pay attention to the experts

Pay attention to the experts…

Nutritional science has made huge advancements in recent years. Science can guide us on:

  • What nutrients animals need

  • What quantity those nutrients are required in

  • What level of feeding should be provided depending on performance

  • How much of the food provided animals are digesting

  • What animals favourite tastes and flavours are….

    …and so on!

    As with many areas of science though, there are discrepancies and difference of opinion.


Animal welfare

Nutrition and Feed companies invest huge amounts of time and money in research to try and offer products to the maximum number of consumers.


Trial and error what works

Trial and Error (what works!)

Observing…

Behaviour

Faeces

Breath

Skin and Hair


Personal preference

Personal Preference

  • Palatability

  • Appearance

  • Smell

  • Texture


Animal welfare

Our Own knowledge +

Experts Research+

Observations+

Personal Preference=

FOOD ANALYSIS FOR OUR OWN PET

We can further analyse by comparing.


Comparing commercial food

Comparing Commercial Food

  • Ingredients

  • Nutritional Analysis

    & Dry matter

  • Cost


Comparing food type

Comparing Food Type

DRY

SEMI MOIST

WET|


Commercial vs home vs raw

Commercial vs Home vs Raw

Commercial

  • ‘balanced’, convenient, additives…

    Home

  • cheaper?….

    Raw

  • ‘natural’….


Preference testing

Preference Testing


Specific feeding

SPECIFIC FEEDING


Obesity

Obesity

  • Low energy density

  • Increased volume to increase

    satiety (moisture levels in wet, kibble design in dry)

  • Protein levels sufficient to

    minimise muscle tissue loss

  • Enriched with antioxidants

    (Vitamin E and Taurine)

  • Low in fat


Diabetes

http://www.hillspet.com/products/pd-canine-wd-canine-low-fat-diabetic-gastrointestinal-canned.html

Diabetes

  • Usually caused by damage to the pancreas and the inability to produce insulin which regulates sugar levels

·Clinically proven nutrition to help dogs maintain a healthy weight

·High levels of carnitine to increase energy metabolism and burn fat while increasing lean muscle mass

·Moderately high fiber levels provide a feeling of fullness and may help reduce begging

·Helps stabilize and minimize fluctuation of blood glucose levels in diabetic dogs

Added antioxidants to control cell oxidation and promote a healthy immune system


Kidney condition

http://www.hillspet.com/products/pd-feline-kd-feline-renal-health-dry.html

Kidney Condition

  • Kidneys remove waste substances from the blood, and maintain the normal balance of fluid and minerals within the body.

    Once kidney damage occurs, the consequences are usually irreversible.

  • Reduced levels of protein to help reduce kidney workload

  • Reduced phosphorus to help maintain healthy kidney function and minimize stress on kidneys

  • Reduced sodium to help maintain normal blood pressure

  • ·Increased levels of omega-3 fatty acids to support kidney health

  • ·Increased levels of B-complex vitamins to compensate urinary losses

  • Added antioxidants to control cell oxidation and promote a healthy immune system


Urinary tract conditions

Urinary Tract Conditions

Supreme VetCarePlus Urinary Tract Health Formula

  • High 28% Crude Fibre

  • Based on Timothy Hay

  • Low Ca. 0.5%

  • Added vitamin C – 500mg/kg

  • Encourages water consumption

  • With Cranberries and Billberries – natural antioxidents

  • Echinacea – to help support the immune system & fight infection

  • Dandelion – a gentle diuretic – to stimulate routine renal function

  • Rich in “long fibre”

  • Extended feeding time

  • Promotes dental wear

  • Enhances environmental enrichment

  • A nutritionally complete and balance diet

  • Wheat and Gluten free

  • Added Linseed for healthy skin and coat

  • No artificial colours or flavours

  • No added sugars


Aging

Aging

http://www.hillspet.com/products/sd-canine-adult-healthy-mobility-large-breed-dry.html

  • Dogs can experience mobility issues at different stages of life. Diet can enhance active mobility and help improve joint flexibility. Enriching with high levels of Omega-3 fatty acids; plus Glucosamine and Chondroitin Sulfate from natural sources can help support bone and joint cartilage and maintain ease of movement in aging and with mobility difficulty.

Vital fatty acids for optimal levels of Omega-3 fatty acids to enhance overall mobility.

Omega-3 fatty acids plus Glucosamine & Chondroitin Sulfate from natural sources for key building blocks of healthy cartilage and joint function.

Vitamin C + E in optimal levels of clinically proven antioxidants for a healthy immune system.

High quality lean proteins, the building block for lean muscle and helping maintain ideal body composition.

High quality ingredients to ensures optimal nutrient absorption to keep your dog fit and healthy


Specific breed requirements

Specific Breed Requirements

http://www.royalcanin.co.uk/products/products/dog-products/breed-health-nutrition

  • Targets Digestive Function

  • Support Sensitive Skin

  • Joint Support

  • Ideal Weight formula

  • Bone & Joint Support

  • Healthy skin & Coat

  • Antioxidants

  • Bright White Coat Promotion

  • Tartar Control

  • Healthy Skin

  • Fussy Appetite

  • Cardiac Function Support

  • Enhances Coat Colour

  • Weight Maintenance

  • Brachycephalic jaw kibble


Laminitis

Laminitis

http://www.arabianhorsesource.com/laminitisarticlediagrams.pdf

  • Contains very low levels of cereal starch and sugar making it ideally suited for horses and ponies prone to laminitis.

  • Low in calories making it ideal for good doers, native ponies and those at rest or in light work.

  • Contains a special blend of natural fibres to help keep your horse or pony eating for longer when compared to cubes and mixes.


Feeding adaptations

Feeding Adaptations

  • Physical


Feeding adaptations1

Feeding Adaptations

  • Physiological


Feeding adaptations2

Feeding Adaptations

  • Behavioural


Feeding adaptations3

Feeding Adaptations

  • Social


Feed mechanisms

Feed Mechanisms


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