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Motherboard and Bios PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Motherboard and Bios. Generic Modern Motherboard. Courtesy of ASUS USA. PCI-X. Chipset. CPU Socket. Battery. SATA. RAM. Power. PCI-X and AGP – (Advanced Graphics Port) - Special slots for graphics cards

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Motherboard and Bios

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Motherboard and Bios


Generic Modern Motherboard


Courtesy of ASUS USA

PCI-X

Chipset

CPU

Socket

Battery

SATA

RAM

Power


PCI-X and AGP – (Advanced Graphics Port) - Special slots for graphics cards

PCI – (Peripheral Component Interconnect) – Most common on newer PCs. Used for Graphics, Network, Firewire, and any other add-on card for a newer PC. Roughly 10 times faster than ISA

ISA – (Industry Standard Architecture ) – Common on older PCs (Over 8 yrs old) – Slower Bus speed than PCI

Things to know about the slots


Lines of communication within the PC

Capability measured in speed and width

Modern PCs usually have a bus speed of 133-533 MHz – Older PCs have 66 or 133 MHz

Important when buying additional RAM, RAM must run at the same speed as the Motherboard

Main Bus vs. Front side Bus

Bus width – amount of data that can be sent over the same wire at the same time

Modern PCs – Maximum 64 Bits Bus Width

Riding the Bus


Internal and External Bus

  • Internal Bus – On the board itself (Processor, RAM)

  • External Bus – leads outside of the box (USB, Keyboard connections, PCI etc)

  • Can have different speeds


PC Card Speeds

  • AGP – usually 32 Bits

  • PCI – 32 or 64 Bits

  • ISA – 8 or 16 Bits


CMOS Battery

  • Lithium Battery that backs up the System BIOS

  • Needs replacing every so often

  • Signs it needs to be replaced

    • Clock does not keep time between reboots

    • Computer “loses” hard drives, floppies, and other devices that are installed on the computer

    • Other assorted weirdness


BIOS (Basic Input Output System)

  • A power-on self-test (POST) for all of the different hardware components in the system to make sure everything is working properly

  • Activating other BIOS chips on different cards installed in the computer - For example, SCSI and graphics cards often have their own BIOS chips.

  • Providing a set of low-level routines that the operating system uses to interface to different hardware devices - It is these routines that give the BIOS its name. They manage things like the keyboard, the screen, and the serial and parallel ports, especially when the computer is booting.

  • Managing a collection of settings for the hard disks, clock, etc.

    • Thanks Howstuffworks.com


BIOS Updates

  • Newer mobo's often have updates

  • Adds functionality, fixes bugs, speeds things up

  • Methods:

    • Making a boot floppy

    • Boot CD-ROM

    • Program that re-boots and updates


Cooling

  • Enemy #1: Heat

  • Active cooling

  • Passive cooling

  • Moving parts wear out


Active Cooling

  • Fans

  • Heat Exchanger

  • Liquid


Passive Cooling

  • Heat Sinks

  • Heat Exchanger


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