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Chapter 12 DNA Analysis. Identify individuals from unique genetic code In every nucleated cell in the human body Can be extracted from blood, semen, urine, bone, hair follicles, and saliva. In the nucleus of each cell are 46 chromosomes.

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Chapter 12 dna analysis

Chapter 12 DNA Analysis



In the nucleus of each cell are 46 chromosomes.

Each chromosome is made of long strands of DNA wrapped around proteins called histones.


You have 23 pairs of chromosomes

One copy is from each parent.


A gene is A segment of dna that contains the instruction s to make a protein

There are about 20,000-25,000 genes in the human genome. Most of your DNA (98%) does not code for proteins.


DNA structure

Deoxyribonucleic Acid is a macromolecule containing the sugar deoxyribose.

It is a polymer made of two strands of repeating units called nucleotides.

Each nucleotide is made of three parts…a sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base.

There are only four different nitrogenous bases… Adenine

Thymine

Cytosine

Guanine


Hair color

Skin color

freckles

Widows peak

gene

Eye color

Gene; a segment of DNA that codes for a particular protein



The hydrogen bonds are very weak, so the two strands can “unzip” allowing the base sequence to be “read” when the DNA copies itself, or when the gene’s instructions are used to create proteins.


Every three bases codes for one “unzip” allowing the base sequence to be “read” when the DNA copies itself, or when the gene’s instructions are used to create proteins. amino acid. A long string of amino acids make up a protein, and our proteins that we make give us our traits.


Jack the Ripper “unzip” allowing the base sequence to be “read” when the DNA copies itself, or when the gene’s instructions are used to create proteins.

The order of the 3 billion base pairs is 99.9% identical in all humans. The unique 0.1% gives us incredible diversity.

Einstein

Mozart

You!


Types of dna
Types of DNA “unzip” allowing the base sequence to be “read” when the DNA copies itself, or when the gene’s instructions are used to create proteins.

Nuclear

found in the nucleus

constitutes 23 pairs of chromosomes inherited from both parents

each cell contains only one nuclei

Mitochondrial

found in the cytoplasm

is inherited only from mother

each cell contains hundreds to thousands of mitochondria

can be found in skeletal remains


Nuclear DNA is present in the head of the sperm. Mitochondrial DNA is present in the tail. At conception, the head of the sperm enters the egg and unites with the nucleus. The tail falls off, losing the father’s mitochondrial DNA.


Typically blood and other bodily fluids provide DNA for forensic testing and determining a DNA profile, or fingerprint.

Uses of DNA Fingerprinting:

Identify potential suspects

Clear the wrongly accused

Identify Crime and Catastrophe victims

Establish paternity

Match organ donors and recipients


Rflp analysis
RFLP Analysis forensic testing and determining a DNA profile, or fingerprint.

Restriction

Fragment

Length

Polymorphism

1. After isolating the DNA from the cell, restriction enzymes are used to “chop up” the DNA into small pieces (or DNA “fragments”). Different restriction enzymes recognize different DNA sequences and therefore cut the DNA at different places in the sequence. You end up with many fragments of different lengths (they’re polymorphic).


Animation forensic testing and determining a DNA profile, or fingerprint.


2. Now, the many fragments are separated by forensic testing and determining a DNA profile, or fingerprint.gel electrophoresis. A gel provides a barrier through which the DNA fragments can slowly travel. An electrical current draws the negatively charged DNA from one end of the gel to the other, but the polymorphic fragments don’t travel at the same speed, so they’re separated by size and charge.

Virtual lab

Animation



Polymerase chain reaction pcr
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) fingerprint

  • Make millions of copies of DNA from a small sample

  • Quick and easy in the lab, DNA less susceptible to degradation

  • Requires 50x less DNA than what is needed for RFLP

  • Contaminant DNA will be amplified as well


Short tandem repeats str
Short Tandem Repeats (STR) fingerprint

  • Used more commonly than RFLP because:

  • Takes less time

  • Requires less of a sample size

  • Is more exclusionary (eliminates more people as the source of the DNA)


STR’s are locations (loci) on the chromosome that contain short sequences

of 2 to 5 bases that repeat themselves in the DNA molecule. They are “markers” not found in the “coding” part of a gene.


THO1 short sequences

One commonly used STR

5 – 11 repeats of A-A-T-G on chromosome 11 in the introns of the tyrosine hydroxylase gene

There are 7 variants of THO1 in humans


Short Tandem Repeats (STR) short sequences

  • STR typing is visualized by peaks shown on a graph.

  • Each peak represents the size of the DNA fragment.


FBI’s short sequencesCODIS DNA Database

  • Combined DNA Index System

  • Used for linking serial crimes and unsolved cases with repeat offenders

  • Launched October 1998

  • Links all 50 states

  • Requires >4 RFLP markers and/or 13 core STR markers


Codis
CODIS short sequences


Codis1
CODIS short sequences


1 probability of identity
1. Probability of Identity short sequences

Is a measure

of the likelihood

that 2 random

individuals

will have an identical

STR type


2 probability is determined
2. Probability is determined short sequences

By multiplying their frequencies


3 probability of another unrelated individual
3 short sequences. Probability ofanother unrelated individual

Having the first 3 STRs match is

1 in 5000

STRAfrican-AmericanU.S Caucasian

D3S1358 0.097 0.080

vWA 0.074 0.068

FGA 0.036 0.041

8/100 x 6.8/100 x 4.1/100 = 223 / 1 000 000

≈ 1 / 5000in the U.S. Caucasian population


4 the probability of frequency
4 short sequences. The probability of frequency

For the first 6 STRs

is

1 in 2 million




Three short sequencesPossible Outcomes

  • Match—The DNA profile appears the same. Lab will determine the frequency.

  • Exclusion—The genotype comparison shows profile differences that can only be explained by the two samples originating from different sources.

  • Inconclusive—The data does not support a conclusion as to whether the profiles match.


Dna interactive
DNA Interactive short sequences

The website below has a STR animation demonstration. Click on human identification, profiling and then on the third circle called Today’s DNA Profiling to see the demonstration.

http://www.dnai.org/d/index.html



Uses of dna fingerprinting
Uses of DNA Fingerprinting piece of evidence.

A. Identification of remains


Case study
Case Study: piece of evidence.

The Angel of Death:

Josef Mengele


Josef Mengele piece of evidence.

was a Nazi

war criminal notorious for grotesque human experiments that he carried out at the Auschwitz concentration camp.


After the Second World War he fled from the Allies and escaped to South America.

The fugitive succeeded in living out the rest of his days without being caught.


Wolfgang escaped to South America.

Gerhard

Died 1979

  • 1985

Embu


Using DNA extracted from blood provided by Mengele’s ex-wife and son, it was concluded that it was more than 99.94% certain that the skeleton was Mengele’s

Irene

Rolf


B. Paternity Cases ex-wife and son, it was concluded that it was more than 99.94% certain that the skeleton was Mengele’s

Who’s your daddy?


1. ex-wife and son, it was concluded that it was more than 99.94% certain that the skeleton was Mengele’s

2.

1.

2.


Case study1
Case Study: ex-wife and son, it was concluded that it was more than 99.94% certain that the skeleton was Mengele’s

The Sally

Hemings and

Thomas Jefferson

Controversy


Thomas jefferson april 13 1743 july 4 1826
Thomas Jefferson ex-wife and son, it was concluded that it was more than 99.94% certain that the skeleton was Mengele’s(April 13, 1743–July 4, 1826)

Third president of the United States (1801–1809)

Principal author of the Declaration of Independence and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of republicanism in the United States


When ex-wife and son, it was concluded that it was more than 99.94% certain that the skeleton was Mengele’s

President John F. Kennedy welcomed

forty-nine Nobel Prize

winners to the

White House in 1962

he said,

"I think this is the most extraordinary collection

of talent and of human knowledge that has ever been gathered together

at the White House– with the possible exception

of when Thomas Jefferson dined alone.”


Jefferson has been consistently ranked ex-wife and son, it was concluded that it was more than 99.94% certain that the skeleton was Mengele’s

by scholars as one of the

GREATEST U.S.PRESIDENTS.


Thomas jefferson an enigma
Thomas Jefferson – an enigma ex-wife and son, it was concluded that it was more than 99.94% certain that the skeleton was Mengele’s

Jefferson owned

many slaves over

his lifetime.


Some find it baffling ex-wife and son, it was concluded that it was more than 99.94% certain that the skeleton was Mengele’s

that Thomas Jefferson

owned slaves

yet was outspoken

in saying

that slavery was immoral

and

it should be

abolished.


Biographers point out that ex-wife and son, it was concluded that it was more than 99.94% certain that the skeleton was Mengele’s

Jefferson was deeply in debt

and had encumbered

his slaves by notes

and mortgages;

he chose not to free them until he finally was debt-free,

which he never was.


Elizabeth Hemings ex-wife and son, it was concluded that it was more than 99.94% certain that the skeleton was Mengele’s

John Wayles

3a.

John’s slave

Jefferson’s

Father-in-law

Sally Hemings (1773)

1776


1802 james t callender a disappointed office seeker
1802..James ex-wife and son, it was concluded that it was more than 99.94% certain that the skeleton was Mengele’sT.Callender(a disappointed office-seeker)

In a Richmond

newspaper

Jefferson had

“kept as

his concubine,

one of his own slaves”

and had

“several children”

by her


Two of sally s children
Two of Sally’s children: ex-wife and son, it was concluded that it was more than 99.94% certain that the skeleton was Mengele’s

Madison and Eston claimed that

Jefferson was their father.

This belief was passed down through the generations.


The jefferson hemings story
The Jefferson-Hemings story ex-wife and son, it was concluded that it was more than 99.94% certain that the skeleton was Mengele’s

Denied by his children on practical and moral grounds

Jefferson descendants claim that Jefferson’s nephews – Peter and Samuel Carr – were the fathers of the light-skinned Monticello slaves some thought to be Jefferson’s children.


The jefferson hemings story1
The Jefferson– ex-wife and son, it was concluded that it was more than 99.94% certain that the skeleton was Mengele’sHemings Story

was sustained throughout the 19th century by:

British critics of US democracy

abolitionists


The dna tests
THE DNA TESTS ex-wife and son, it was concluded that it was more than 99.94% certain that the skeleton was Mengele’s

  • Conducted by Dr. Eugene Foster and a team of geneticists in 1998

  • No direct male descendants of Thomas Jefferson have survived


The dna study
The DNA Study ex-wife and son, it was concluded that it was more than 99.94% certain that the skeleton was Mengele’s

Tested Y- chromosomal DNA samples from male-line descendants of

  • Field Jefferson (Thomas Jefferson’s uncle),

  • John Carr (paternal grandfather of Samuel and Peter Carr)

  • EstonHemings (Sally’s second son)

  • Thomas C. Woodson (reputed to be Sally’s first son)


The dna study1
The DNA Study: ex-wife and son, it was concluded that it was more than 99.94% certain that the skeleton was Mengele’s

  • (1) Found NO LINK between the descendants of Field Jefferson and Thomas C. Woodson (reputed to be Sally’s first son, but no records of his birth have been found to substantiate this)

X


  • (2) Found ex-wife and son, it was concluded that it was more than 99.94% certain that the skeleton was Mengele’sNO LINK between Hemings and Carr descendants

X


(3) Found that an individual ex-wife and son, it was concluded that it was more than 99.94% certain that the skeleton was Mengele’s

carrying the

male Jefferson

Y- chromosome

fathered

EstonHemings

(born 1808),

the last

known child

of Sally Hemings.


Does this mean that thomas jefferson was definitely the father of eston hemings
Does this mean that Thomas Jefferson was ex-wife and son, it was concluded that it was more than 99.94% certain that the skeleton was Mengele’sdefinitely the father of EstonHemings?

No, it means that he COULD BE the father of EstonHemings.


There were 25 adult male jeffersons
There were 25 adult male Jeffersons ex-wife and son, it was concluded that it was more than 99.94% certain that the skeleton was Mengele’s

who carried this chromosome living in Virginia at the time, and a few of them are known to have visited Monticello


November ex-wife and son, it was concluded that it was more than 99.94% certain that the skeleton was Mengele’s, 1998

“Jefferson Fathered Slave’s Last Child”


The thomas jefferson memorial foundation
The Thomas Jefferson Memorial Foundation ex-wife and son, it was concluded that it was more than 99.94% certain that the skeleton was Mengele’s

issued a report in January 2000 concluding that there is a strong likelihood that Thomas Jefferson was the father of at least one and perhaps all the children of Sally Hemings.


May 27 2002
May 27, 2002 ex-wife and son, it was concluded that it was more than 99.94% certain that the skeleton was Mengele’s

The Monticello Association


An organization for descendants ex-wife and son, it was concluded that it was more than 99.94% certain that the skeleton was Mengele’s

of Thomas Jefferson

refused to recognize and admit

any descendants of Sally Hemings



Many elements of the jefferson hemings story are widely accepted
Many elements of the Jefferson- membership to Hemings story are widely accepted :

  • Sally Hemings

    (1773-1835)

    was a slave at Monticello,

  • She lived in Paris with Jefferson and two of his daughters from 1787-1789

  • Sally had 6 children


The births of sally s children were recorded in monticello records
The births of Sally’s children were recorded in Monticello records:

  • Harriet (born 1795; died in infancy)

  • Beverly (born 1798)

  • An unnamed daughter (born 1799; died in infancy)

  • Harriet (born 1801)

  • Madison (born 1805)

  • Eston (born 1808)


Sally records:Hemings:

Lady’s maid to daughters Martha and Maria

Nursemaid - companion

to Jefferson’s daughter

Maria

seamstress


No known images of Sally records:Hemings

?


Sally left no known written accounts
Sally left no known written accounts records:

It is not known

if she was

literate


There are only a few
There are only a few.. records:

  • Scattered references to Sally in Thomas Jefferson’s records

  • There is nothing to distinguish her from any other members of her family or any other slaves



At the likely conception times of sally s six known children
At the likely records:conception timesof Sally’s six known children


Sally s children were
Sally’s children were.. records:

  • Light-skinned and three of them, daughter Harriet and sons Beverly and Eston lived as members of white society


According to contemporary accounts
According to contemporary accounts records:

Some of Sally’s children

Strongly resembled Jefferson


Freed by Jefferson during his lifetime: records:

  • Robert Hemings (1762-1819), freed 1794

  • James Hemings (1765-1801), freed 1796

    Freed in 1826-1827, by the terms of Jefferson's will:

  • Joseph (Joe) Fossett (1780-1858)

  • Burwell Colbert (1783-1850+)

  • Madison Hemings (1805-1856)

  • John Hemmings (1776-1833)

  • EstonHemings (1808-1856)

    Left Monticello, with Jefferson's tacit consent, in 1804 and 1822:

  • James Hemings (born 1787)

  • Beverly Hemings (born 1798)

  • Harriet Hemings (born 1801)


JEFFERSON GAVE FREEDOM records:

TO

NO OTHER NUCLEAR

SLAVE FAMILY


  • Jefferson did not free Sally records:Hemings. She was permitted to leave Monticello by Maria Jefferson Randolph not long after Jefferson’s death in 1826 and went to live with her sons Madison and Eston in Charlottesville.

  • EstonHemings Changed his name to EstonHemings Jefferson in 1852

  • Madison Hemings stated in 1873 that he and his siblings were Thomas Jefferson’s children.


The descendants of eston hemings
The descendants of records:EstonHemings

Who lived

as whites,

passed

down

A family history of being related to Thomas Jefferson


The descendants of madison hemings
The descendants of records:Madison Hemings

Who have lived as African-Americans

have passed

a family history

of descent

from

Thomas Jefferson and

Sally Hemings


The thomas jefferson foundation
The Thomas Jefferson Foundation records:

Stands by its original findings - that the weight of evidence suggests that Jefferson probably was the father of Eston Hemings and perhaps the father of all of Sally Heming’s children – but is ready to review new evidence at any time and to reassess its understanding of this matter in the light of new information.


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