Type 1 AGN SEDs in the COSMOS
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Type 1 AGN SEDs in the COSMOS A Single Form, Mixing Diagram, and Outliers . Heng Hao (SISSA) Martin Elvis (CFA) and COSMOS Team INAF-OABO Seminar 2012-10-25 . 10%. 90%. Outline. Introduction: Definition and Important Questions XMM-COSMOS SEDs

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Type 1 AGN SEDs in the COSMOS A Single Form, Mixing Diagram, and Outliers

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Type 1 agn seds in the cosmos a single form mixing diagram and outliers

Type 1 AGN SEDs in the COSMOS

A Single Form, Mixing Diagram,

and Outliers

Heng Hao (SISSA)

Martin Elvis (CFA)

and COSMOS Team

INAF-OABO

Seminar

2012-10-25

10%

90%


Type 1 agn seds in the cosmos a single form mixing diagram and outliers

Outline

  • Introduction: Definition and Important Questions

  • XMM-COSMOS SEDs

  • Mixing Diagram: HR Diagram in AGN Evolution?

    • Evolution Track

    • Inferred Host Galaxy Fraction

    • Inferred Reddening E(B-V)

    • Outliers: Hot-Dust-Poor Quasars & Others

  • Summary


49 yrs ago in 1963 first quasar 3c 273 by maarten schmidt

49 yrs ago, in 1963First Quasar: 3C 273 by Maarten Schmidt

3C 273: z = 0.1583

Furthest quasar now:

z = 7


Type 1 agn seds in the cosmos a single form mixing diagram and outliers

Unified Model

Two types of AGNs

According to Optical Emission Lines:

1.Type 1 AGNs: broad emission lines

generally unobscured by gas and dust

2.Type 2 AGNs: narrow emission lines only

generally heavily abscured

According to power of nuclei:

Quasars

Seyferts

1995

SED Ref for other type of AGNs:

LLAGN: Ho 1999

Red quasar: Young+2008

3) …


Wavelength ordered strips

IRAC

u

B

g

V

r

i

z

K

1

2

3

4

IB427

IB565

IB505

IB574

IB709

NB711

NB816

IB827

24um

Wavelength Ordered Strips

Wavelength Ordered Strips from Peter Capak


Type 1 agn seds in the cosmos a single form mixing diagram and outliers

Wavelength Ordered Strips

IRAC

u

B

g

V

r

i

z

K

1

2

3

4

IB427

IB565

IB505

IB574

IB709

NB711

NB816

IB827

24um

Wavelength Ordered Strips from Peter Capak


Wavelength ordered strips1

z

K

NB816

IB827

IRAC1

IRAC2

IRAC3

IRAC4

IRAC

u

B

g

V

r

i

z

K

1

2

3

4

IB427

IB565

IB505

IB574

IB709

NB711

NB816

IB827

24um

Wavelength Ordered Strips

Wavelength Ordered Strips from Peter Capak


Sed example

(Elvis, Hao + 2012)

SED Example

K H J

GALEX

MIPS

IRAC

Subaru SDSSCFHT

Elvis 94

Galaxy

XMM


Quasar spectral energy distribution

Constant power per decade

Radio

FIR

Opt-UV

EUV

X-ray

NIR

1 dex

Quasar Spectral Energy Distribution

Elvis et al., 1994, ApJS, 95, 1


Quasar spectral energy distribution1

corona-Comptonized

hot dust from ‘torus’

accretion disk

jet synchrotron

Mechanism

Opt-UV

Radio

FIR

EUV

X-ray

NIR

Quasar Spectral Energy Distribution

Compton Hump (~10-30keV)

Big Blue Bump (0.1~1μm)

Radio-loud

mm break (~100μm)

1μm inflection

Soft Excess (~0.1 keV)

Radio-quiet

Lν = ν-3 (dust)

Elvis et al., 1994, ApJS, 95, 1


Quasar spectral energy distribution2

corona-Comptonized

hot dust from ‘torus’

accretion disk

jet synchrotron

Mechanism

Radio

FIR

Opt-UV

EUV

X-ray

NIR

Quasar Spectral Energy Distribution

Compton Hump (~10-30keV)

Radio-loud

Big Blue Bump (0.1~1μm)

mm break (~100μm)

1μm inflection

Soft Excess (~0.1 keV)

Radio-quiet

Lν = ν-3 (dust)

Review by Harris & Krawczynski (2006)

Elvis et al., 1994, ApJS, 95, 1


Type 1 agn seds in the cosmos a single form mixing diagram and outliers

  • Radio Loudness

  • Radio Loudness Definitions:

  • RL =log(f5GHz/fB)>1

  • q24= log(f24μm/f1.4GHz)<0

  • R*uv= log(f5GHz/f2500Å)>1

  • Ri=log(f1.4GHz/fi)>1

  • logP5GHz(W/Hz/Sr)>23.7

  • RX=log(νLν(5GHz)/LX)>-3

  • where LX is the luminosity in 2-10 keV

  • *Affected by reddening

  • Radio Loudness Distr.:

    bimodal (e.g. Kellermann +1989, Miller+1990)

    continuous (e.g. Cirasuolo +2003)

  • Typical RL Fraction ~10%

    (e.g. Kellermann +1989; Urry & Padovani 1995)

  • RL Fraction evolve with z or i magnitude (Balokovic + 2012)

  • RL(L/LEdd)-1 for

    L/LEdd>0.001(Sikora + 2007)


Type 1 agn seds in the cosmos a single form mixing diagram and outliers

  • Small Radio Loud Fraction

(Hao + 2012 in prep)

RQ

RL

  • COSMOS RL fraction~4%, 9% (Ri)

    • 5/413 RL in common for all definitions

    • 8/413 RL in common for two definitions

  • COSMOS sources are at the high accretion tail of the Sikora + 2007 plot show no similar trend.


Quasar spectral energy distribution3

corona-Comptonized

hot dust from ‘torus’

accretion disk

jet synchrotron

Mechanism

Radio

FIR

Opt-UV

EUV

X-ray

NIR

Quasar Spectral Energy Distribution

Lack Observation Data; ALMA✔

Grey Body:

Fν ∝ν3+β/(ehν/kT − 1),

where β~1-2

(Silva + 1998, Dunne & Eales 2001)

Compton Hump (~10-30keV)

Radio-loud

Big Blue Bump (0.1~1μm)

mm break (~100μm)

1μm inflection

Soft Excess (~0.1 keV)

Radio-quiet

Lν = ν3(dust)

Elvis et al., 1994, ApJS, 95, 1


Quasar spectral energy distribution4

corona-Comptonized

hot dust from ‘torus’

accretion disk

jet synchrotron

Mechanism

Radio

FIR

Opt-UV

EUV

X-ray

NIR

Quasar Spectral Energy Distribution

Observation: Spitzer, Herschel, WISE

Torus model:

Smooth (eg. Fritz + 2006)

Clumpy (eg. Nenkova + 2008)

2-phase (eg. Stalevski + 2012)

Compton Hump (~10-30keV)

Radio-loud

Big Blue Bump (0.1~1μm)

mm break (~100μm)

1μm inflection

Soft Excess (~0.1 keV)

Radio-quiet

Lν = ν3(dust)

Elvis et al., 1994, ApJS, 95, 1


Type 1 agn seds in the cosmos a single form mixing diagram and outliers

  • Dust Property

  • Dust extinct λ~2πa most

  • AGN extinction curve SMC like

    (Czerny + 2004; Gaskell + 2004;

    Crenshaw+2001, 2002—Seyferts;

    Hopkins +2004 —SDSS+2MASS; )

  • Maximum dust temperature:

  • 1400K - 1900K

  • (eg. Laor & Drain 1993)

  • Inner radius of dust sublimation:

  • 0.01 - 0.1pc (10~100 light days)

  • (Suganuma+ 2006)

Reddening of E94: E(B-V)=0~1


Quasar spectral energy distribution5

corona-Comptonized

hot dust from ‘torus’

accretion disk

jet synchrotron

Mechanism

Radio

FIR

Opt-UV

EUV

X-ray

NIR

Quasar Spectral Energy Distribution

BBB comes from Accretion Disk

(Shields 1978)

Simple α disk fits well Fν∝ν⅓

(Frank+2002)

Compton Hump (~10-30keV)

Radio-loud

Big Blue Bump (0.1~1μm)

mm break (~100μm)

1μm inflection

Soft Excess (~0.1 keV)

Radio-quiet

Lν = ν3(dust)

Elvis et al., 1994, ApJS, 95, 1


Quasar spectral energy distribution6

corona-Comptonized

hot dust from ‘torus’

accretion disk

jet synchrotron

Mechanism

Radio

FIR

Opt-UV

EUV

X-ray

NIR

Quasar Spectral Energy Distribution

Milky Way Opaque

Define αox= -log[L2keV/L2500Å]/2.605

Compton Hump (~10-30keV)

Radio-loud

Big Blue Bump (0.1~1μm)

mm break (~100μm)

1μm inflection

Soft Excess (~0.1 keV)

Radio-quiet

Lν = ν3(dust)

Elvis et al., 1994, ApJS, 95, 1


Quasar spectral energy distribution7

corona-Comptonized

hot dust from ‘torus’

accretion disk

jet synchrotron

Mechanism

Radio

FIR

Opt-UV

EUV

X-ray

NIR

Quasar Spectral Energy Distribution

Compton Hump (~10-30keV)

Radio-loud

Big Blue Bump (0.1~1μm)

mm break (~100μm)

1μm inflection

Soft Excess (~0.1 keV)

Radio-quiet

Lν = ν3(dust)

Elvis et al., 1994, ApJS, 95, 1


Quasar continuum is hard to study

Veritas

  • Needs many telescopes

  • Several Quasar Properties Affect:

  • (Variability, BEL, …)

  • Reddening

  • Host Galaxy Contamination

Fermi

Chandra

Quasar Continuum is Hard to Study

Hubble

Spitzer

SMA

VLA


Why sed is important

Why SED is important?

Int.

1) SED-----> Total Quasar Power (Lbol)kCorrection Transfer Lν to Lbol

 Accretion Rate Accretion History of the Universe

2) SED ----- AGN Structure --- Origin of Continuum

3) SMBH and Galaxy Co-evolution / Black Hole Growth

4) …


Agn selection

Elvis 94

RQRL

AGN Selection

Selected in certain band(s):

a) Radio Luminosity (RL is rare, biased towards RL)

b) Near Infrared (Lacy / Stern Wedge, obs frame, missing)

c) Optical color (e.g. U-B, biased toward blue quasar)

d) X-ray Luminosity (most complete)

2) Emission Lines (e.g. BPT Diagram)

16 SWIRE Galaxy

Template (Polletta+2007)

normalized

at UKIDSS L*

(Cirasuolo + 2007)

Note: SED Fitting usually use

Bruzual & Charlot (2003)

Gal SEDs (no dust feature)


Type 1 agn seds in the cosmos a single form mixing diagram and outliers

Outline

  • Introduction: Definitionand Important Questions

  • XMM-COSMOS SEDs

  • Mixing Diagram: HR Diagram in AGN Evolution?

    • Evolution Track

    • Inferred Host Galaxy Fraction

    • Inferred Reddening E(B-V)

    • Outliers: Hot-Dust-Poor Quasars & Others

  • Summary


Pre cosmos sed elvis 94

  • Most studies use only mean SED & bolometric corrections

  • Yet SED spread is significant: ~1dex in UV, FIR

  • No theory

  • No correlations

  • Small sample: 29 radio-quiet, 18 radio-loud

  • Low z: 0.05 - 0.9

  • Low S/N: in X-ray, UV, FIR

  • Biased: Blue Quasar

  • (Elvis et al. 1994)

Pre-COSMOS SED - Elvis 94

1 dex

1 dex


Pre cosmos sed richards 06

  • SDSS-selected (optical selected)

  • Photometry coverage:

  • 5 bands in optical,

  • limited VLA data (30/259)

  • limited ROSAT data (28/259)

  • limited GALEX data

  • (FUV 55/259; NUV 88/259)

  • 87 quasars fainter than the SDSS spectroscopic magnitude limit

  • “Gap Repair” – heavily depend on the Elvis 1994 SED

  • (Richards et al. 2006)

Pre-COSMOS SED - Richards 06


Expect sed differences 1 the galaxy smbh merger cycle

Expect SED differences: 1. The Galaxy/SMBH Merger Cycle

QUASAR phase

High L/Ledd

2 accretion modes  2 SEDs

Star formation rate

SMBH luminosity

Seyfert phaseLow L/Ledd

Time from Merger (Gyr)

Hopkins et al. 2008 ApJS, 175, 356


Expect sed differences 2 ox depend on luminosity

Expect SED differences: 2. αox Depend on Luminosity

  • αox is anticorrelated with LUV at ~4σ.

  • (αox= -log[L2keV/L2500Å]/2.605)

  • No significant correlation between αox and redshift

  • Vignali, Brandt, & Schneider (2003)

  • (see also, Steffen+2006, Just+ 2007,

  • Young+2010, Lusso+2010)


Expect sed differences 3 m evolution

Expect SED differences: 3. M-σ Evolution

__ Local spheroid

 direction of evolution in 300Myr

  • Merloni +(2010)

  • Δlog(MBH/M*)=

  • (0.68±0.12)log(1+z)

  • Similar Results, e.g.

  • Peng+2006

  • Schields+2006

  • Ho+2007

1<z<2.2


Expect sed differences 4 number density evolution

Expect SED differences: 4. Number Density Evolution

Elvis 94

COSMOS

80%

Quasar

Silverman et al. 2005


Type 1 agn seds in the cosmos a single form mixing diagram and outliers

Quasar Spectral Energy Distribution

corona-Comptonized

hot dust from ‘torus’

accretion disk

jet synchrotron

Mechanism

Radio

FIR

Opt-UV

EUV

X-ray

NIR

Compton Hump (~10-30keV)

Is Elvis94 SED correct? - at ALL 6 decades of L? - at ALL z? 13 Gyr - at ALL L/LEdd?

Radio-loud

Big Blue Bump (0.1~1μm)

mm break (~100μm)

1μm inflection

Soft Excess (~0.1 keV)

Radio-quiet

Lν = ν-3 (dust)

Elvis et al., 1994, ApJS, 95, 1


Type 1 agn seds in the cosmos a single form mixing diagram and outliers

Outline

  • Introduction: Definition and Important Questions

  • XMM-COSMOS SEDs

  • Mixing Diagram: HR Diagram in AGN Evolution?

    • Evolution Track

    • Inferred Host Galaxy Fraction

    • Inferred Reddening E(B-V)

    • Outliers: Hot-Dust-Poor Quasars & Others

  • Summary


Type 1 agn seds in the cosmos a single form mixing diagram and outliers

References

  • Hao + 2012a, MNRAS submitted, arXiv:1210.3033

  • Hao + 2012b, MNRAS submitted, arXiv:1210.3044

  • Elvis, Hao + 2012, ApJ, 759, 6

  • Hao + 2011, ApJ, 733, 108

  • Hao + 2010, ApJL, 724, 59


Type 1 agn seds in the cosmos a single form mixing diagram and outliers

  • COSMOS Type 1 AGN Sample

Elvis 94

Richards 06

XMM-COSMOS

K H J

GALEX

MIPS

IRAC

Subaru SDSSCFHT

Elvis 94

Galaxy

XMM


Mean sed

(Elvis, Hao + 2012)

Mean SED

Elvis 94

  • Galactic Extinction Correction

  • Variability Restriction

  • Broad Emission Line Correction

  • Host Galaxy Correction

Before Any Correction

XMM-COSMOS

Mean SED


Mean sed1

(Elvis, Hao + 2012)

Mean SED

Elvis 94

Before Any Correction

After First Corrections *

XMM-COSMOS

Mean SED

Galaxy normalized

at UKIDSS L*

(Cirasuolo + 2007)

OPT-UV

*Galactic Extinction

Variability Restriction

Em. Line Correction

Luo+2010


Host galaxy correction

(Elvis, Hao + 2012)

Host Galaxy Correction

Two Host Galaxy Contamination Estimation Methods:

Hubble Imaging (ACS 814W) : only for z<1(Cisternas+2011)

Mbulge vs MBH relationship (Marconi & Hunt 2003): needs MBH (206/413)

logLJ,gal = 0.877 log Lbol − 0.877 log λE-1.23log(1+z)+ 3.545

XMM


Mean sed with host correction

(Elvis, Hao + 2012)

Mean SED With Host Correction

Elvis+1994

Richards+2006

Hopkins+2007

Shang+2011

Elvis, Hao+2012

XMM-COSMOS

Mean SED

(203/413)


Z l bol logm bh and log e parameter space

z, Lbol, logMBH and logλEParameter Space

z, Lbol, log(MBH/M), logλE=log(Lbol/LEdd)

Radio Loud

Host Corrected 203 Quasars


Type 1 agn seds in the cosmos a single form mixing diagram and outliers

Similarity of Mean SED in logLbol bins

(Hao + 2012a)

logLbol

(46.1, 47.3]

Elvis 94

  • (45.7 46.1]

Mean SED

(45.4 45.7]

(44.3 45.4]

Elliptical


Mean sed in z logl bol logm bh log e bins norm

Mean SED in z, logLbol, logMBH, logλE bins (norm)

z

logLbol

1.5

2

logMBH

logλE

1.5

1.5

(Hao + 2012a)


Sed dispersion in z l bol m bh e bins norm

SED Dispersion in z, Lbol, MBH, λE bins (norm)

z

logLbol

E94

Dispersion

logMBH

logλE

(Hao + 2012a)


Type 1 agn seds in the cosmos a single form mixing diagram and outliers

The Luminosity Dependence at Fixed z

(Hao + 2012a)

The SED shape has no obvious

dependence on bolometric

luminosity at similar redshifts.


Type 1 agn seds in the cosmos a single form mixing diagram and outliers

The Redshift Dependence at Fixed Lbol

(Hao + 2012a)

The SED shape has no obvious

dependence on redshift at

similar bolometric luminosity.


Type 1 agn seds in the cosmos a single form mixing diagram and outliers

SED Partial Dependence

(Hao + 2012a)


Type 1 agn seds in the cosmos a single form mixing diagram and outliers

Quasar Growth Physics invariant with z,Lbol, MBH, L/LEdd

  • z~0.3  secular growth mode

z~2  merger dominated epoch

has the same SED as

Intrinsic Quasar SED Exists

Gross quasar structure within the torus does not change; But the M-σ is evolving,feeding must be changing.


Type 1 agn seds in the cosmos a single form mixing diagram and outliers

Outline

  • Introduction: Definition and Important Questions

  • XMM-COSMOS SEDs

  • Mixing Diagram: HR Diagram in AGN Evolution?

    • Evolution Track

    • Inferred Host Galaxy Fraction

    • Inferred Reddening E(B-V)

    • Outliers: Hot-Dust-Poor Quasars & Others

  • Summary


Quasar and galaxy seds

Elvis 94

RQRL

Ell2

Ell5

Ell13

S0

Sa

Sb

Sc

Sd

Sdm

Spi4

NGC6090

M82

Arp220

IRAS 20551-4250

IRAS 22491-1808

NGC6240

Quasar and Galaxy SEDs

16 SWIRE Galaxy

(Polletta+2007)

norm. at UKIDSS L*

in K band

(Cirasuolo + 2007)


Disentangling quasar and hos t

Disentangling Quasar and Host

(Hao + 2012b)

αNIR

αOPT

Hot Dust

Accretion Disk

1-3μm

0.3-1μm

XMM


Type 1 agn seds in the cosmos a single form mixing diagram and outliers

Host Dominated

Quasar-Host-Reddening Mixing Diagram

(Hao + 2012b)

???

Host

Dominated

AGN Dominated

Reddening Dominated

E(B-V)

AGN

Dominated

Reddening

Dominated


Cosmos agn on mixing diagram

(Hao + 2012b)

COSMOS AGN on Mixing Diagram

E94 mean SED works in

90% of COSMOS Quasars

(Hao et al. 2012a)

Consistent with mean

E94+Host+Reddening


Cosmos agn on mixing diagram1

(Hao + 2012b)

COSMOS AGN on Mixing Diagram


Type 1 agn seds in the cosmos a single form mixing diagram and outliers

Outline

  • Introduction: Definition and Important Questions

  • XMM-COSMOS SEDs

  • Mixing Diagram: HR Diagram in AGN Evolution?

    • Evolution Track

    • Inferred Host Galaxy Fraction

    • Inferred Reddening E(B-V)

    • Outliers: Hot-Dust-Poor Quasars & Others

  • Summary


Appl a evolutionary tracks cosmic cycle

Appl. a) Evolutionary Tracks: “cosmic cycle”

HR Diagram in AGN Evolution? (Hao+ 2011b)


Type 1 agn seds in the cosmos a single form mixing diagram and outliers

Outline

  • Introduction: Definition and Important Questions

  • XMM-COSMOS SEDs

  • Mixing Diagram: HR Diagram in AGN Evolution?

    • Evolution Track

    • Inferred Host Galaxy Fraction

    • Inferred Reddening E(B-V)

    • Outliers: Hot-Dust-Poor Quasars & Others

  • Summary


Type 1 agn seds in the cosmos a single form mixing diagram and outliers

Appl. b) Inferred Host Galaxy Fraction

(Hao + 2012b)

fg


Type 1 agn seds in the cosmos a single form mixing diagram and outliers

Appl. b) Host Galaxy Fraction Comparision

(Hao + 2012b)

Galaxy Luminosity

Galaxy Fraction

MD vs MH

MD vs C

C vs MH


Type 1 agn seds in the cosmos a single form mixing diagram and outliers

Outline

  • Introduction: Definition and Important Questions

  • XMM-COSMOS SEDs

  • Mixing Diagram: HR Diagram in AGN Evolution?

    • Evolution Track

    • Inferred Host Galaxy Fraction

    • Inferred Reddening E(B-V)

    • Outliers: Hot-Dust-Poor Quasars & Others

  • Summary


Type 1 agn seds in the cosmos a single form mixing diagram and outliers

Appl. c) Inferred Reddening E(B-V)

(Hao + 2012b)

Correlation Coefficient = 0.54

Correlation Coefficient = -0.62


Type 1 agn seds in the cosmos a single form mixing diagram and outliers

Appl. c) Inferred Reddening E(B-V)

(Hao + 2012b)

Correlation Coefficient = 0.40

Correlation Coefficient = -0.035


Type 1 agn seds in the cosmos a single form mixing diagram and outliers

Outline

  • Introduction: Definition and Important Questions

  • XMM-COSMOS SEDs

  • Mixing Diagram: HR Diagram in AGN Evolution?

    • Evolution Track

    • Inferred Host Galaxy Fraction

    • Inferred Reddening E(B-V)

    • Outliers: Hot-Dust-Poor Quasars & Others

  • Summary


Appl d outliers identification

(Hao + 2010, 2011)

APPL d) Outliers Identification


Type 1 agn seds in the cosmos a single form mixing diagram and outliers

  • Hot Dust Universal in AGN

  • Hot dust emission is characteristic of AGN

    • not seen in starbursts

  • Infrared slope selects AGNs, especially obscured ones ,

    νfν=να;α=-0.5 to +2

    ( Miley+ 1985….Lacy+ 2004, Stern+ 2005,

    Lacy+ 2007, Donley+ 2008 )

α=-0.5 - 2

  • Maximum dust temperature:

  • 1400K - 1900K

  • (eg. Laor & Drain 1993)

  • Inner radius of dust sublimation:

  • 0.01 - 0.1pc (10~100 light days)

  • (Suganuma+ 2006)


Type 1 agn seds in the cosmos a single form mixing diagram and outliers

  • No Dust in z~6 Quasars

  • 2/21 of 5.8<z<6.4 SDSS quasars are ‘dust-Free’

  • Spitzer IRAC, IRS (15.6μm), MIPS 24

  • Not enough time to form ‘Torus’ (0.93 Gyr)?

1μm

1μm

IR

IR

OPT

OPT

Richards et al. 2006

Richards et al. 2006

J0005-0006

z=5.85

J0303-0019

z=6.07

4 1 0.4

4 1 0.4

Jiang et al. 2008, 2010


Hot dust poor outliers

(Hao + 2010)

Hot-Dust Poor Outliers

missing hot dust

extension of acc. disk

???

E94

E94

E94

# of HDP : 41/404


Physical properties 1 hot dust covering factor

Physical Properties:1. Hot Dust Covering Factor

XID=2105, z=1.509

Class I HDP fc: 2% ~ 29%

  • 75% from type1:type2 ratio at z=0

  • 50% from type1:type2 ratio for X-

    ray bright (e.g. Gilli+2007)

Dust Temperature

= 1500 K

Black Body Normalization

Radius = 0.83 pc

Area = 1.76 pc2

Covering Factor fc= 20%


Type 1 agn seds in the cosmos a single form mixing diagram and outliers

  • Physical Properties:2. Accretion Disk Size

XID=96, z=2.117

Tc=7.8×105α-⅕η-3/10M811/20λE3/10R-3/4f6/5 K assumed α=0.1, η=0.1 (Frank+2002)

Rgi≈ few×102 Rs (Goodman 2003)

Tc

(3200 K)

Accretion Disk Outer Edge

Tc~ R-3/4

Rout = 0.47 pc ≈104 × Rschwarzchild

~14×Rgi(gravitational instability radius)= 20%

Class II HDP AGNs:

Rout = (10 ~ 23)·Rgi

= 0.09pc ~ 0.99pc = (0.3 ~ 2) × 104·Rs

Not Rout

or

something stabilizes disk


Type 1 agn seds in the cosmos a single form mixing diagram and outliers

What are Hot-Dust Poor Quasars?

  • Torus not yet formed? (Jiang + 2010)

  • Not enough accretion rate to drive wind? (Elitzur & Ho 2009)

  • Too low Lbol?(Elitzur & Schlossman 2006)

  • Geometry—Tilted Disk:

  • Misaligned disks could result from isotropic accretion events. (Volonteri+2007)

  • Warped disks leads to a range of covering factors. (Lawrence & Elvis 2010)

plenty of cosmic time at z~2, No

HDP Quasars

14%

No

  • HDP Quasars

No


Geometric origin tilted disks

Geometric Origin: “tilted disks”

(Hao + 2012d in prep)

Lawrence & Elvis (2010)

Tilted Disk Model

αOPT>0.3

Dust Covering Factor: fc=A/(4πre2),

where dust evaporation radius:

re=1.3Luv,461/2T1500-2.8 pc (Barvainis 1987)


Type 1 agn seds in the cosmos a single form mixing diagram and outliers

What are Hot-Dust Poor Quasars?

  • Torus not yet formed? (Jiang + 2010)

  • Not enough accretion rate to drive wind? (Elitzur & Ho 2009)

  • Too low Lbol?(Elitzur & Schlossman 2006)

  • Geometry—Tilted Disk:

  • Misaligned disks could result from isotropic accretion events. (Volonteri+2007)

  • Warped disks leads to a range of covering factors. (Lawrence & Elvis 2010)

  • Recoiling—Off-nuclear BH:

    When a SMBH recoils (or kicked-out), it is possible to bring along the adjacent broad line region but not the further out dusty torus. (Loeb 2007)

plenty of cosmic time at z~2, No

No

No

<

20%

6%

Volonteri & Madau (2008)


Evolutionary tracks cosmic cycle

Evolutionary Tracks: “cosmic cycle”

HR Diagram in AGN Evolution?


Type 1 agn seds in the cosmos a single form mixing diagram and outliers

What are Hot-Dust Poor Quasars?

  • Torus not yet formed? (Jiang + 2010)

  • Not enough accretion rate to drive wind? (Elitzur & Ho 2009)

  • Too low Lbol?(Elitzur & Schlossman 2006)

  • Geometry—Tilted Disk:

  • Misaligned disks could result from isotropic accretion events. (Volonteri+2007)

  • Warped disks leads to a range of covering factors. (Lawrence & Elvis 2010)

  • Recoiling—Off-nuclear BH:

    When a SMBH recoils (or kicked-out), it is possible to bring along the adjacent broad line region but not the further out dusty torus. (Loeb 2007)

  • Evolution—Hot Dust Destroyed:

  • HDPs are quasars on the transition phase?

plenty of cosmic time at z~2, No

No

No

Larger HDP sample (e.g. SDSS+WISE+UKIDSS)

Optical and X-ray Spectrum of HDPs


All xmm cosmos point source

All XMM-COSMOS Point Source

  • Galaxy

  • Type 2 AGN

  • Type 1 AGN

XID=2532 z=1.297

XID=5607 z=1.359

Hot Dust Rich


Type 1 agn seds in the cosmos a single form mixing diagram and outliers

Summary

  • E94 like SED template works for majority of quasars

  • No evolution in mean SED to z=2: quasar structure within torus independent of merger/radio accretion mode

  • Mixing Diagram

    • Evolutionary Tracks

    • Inferred Host Fraction

    • Inferred Reddening E(B-V)

    • Outliers:

    • Hot-Dust-Poor Quasars: dust covering factor; outer disk radius

    • Hot-Dust-Rich Quasars


Type 1 agn seds in the cosmos a single form mixing diagram and outliers

Mixing Diagram

Quasar

(Hao + 2010, 2011, 2012a, 2012b; Elvis, Hao + 2012)

10% quasar are

hot-dust-poor

90% COSMOS quasar

Consistent with mean

E94+Host+Reddening

Other outliers:

eg hot-dust-rich


Backup

Backup


Xmm cosmos survey

XMM-Newton

53 Fields

XMM-COSMOS Survey

Large Area

2.13deg2

Large Sample

1856 sources

>90% Identified

Brusa + 2007, 2010

413 Type 1 AGN

X-ray Moon to scale


Type 1 agn seds in the cosmos a single form mixing diagram and outliers

COSMOS Spectroscopic Survey

Magellan Survey: IMACS/Baade

~ 2,000 redshifts

Trump+ 2007, 2009

zCOSMOS: ESO-VLT

~ 30,000 redshifts

Lilly+ 2007, 2009

Keck for Faint Sources

Masters+ in prep.


Type 1 agn seds in the cosmos a single form mixing diagram and outliers

Main COSMOS Data Sets

Space

Hubble –2 deg2 optical images (600 orbits) Scoville

XMM – 2 deg2Xray imaging (1.5 Msec) Hasinger

Galex – ultraviolet imaging Schiminovich

Spitzer – Mid IR w/ IRAC (620 hrs) Sanders

Chandra – 1 deg2 high-res X-ray imaging Elvis

Herschel – GTOLutz

Subaru – multiple color imaging Taniguchi

VLA – radio imaging (~300 hrs) Schinnerer

MAMBO – 1.2 mm survey Bertoldi

ESO-VLT – zCOSMOS LP ~ 30,000 gal. Lilly

Magellan – optical spectr. ~ 5,000 redshiftsImpey

CFHT, NIR – NOAO, UH88, UKIRT …

Ground


Type 1 agn seds in the cosmos a single form mixing diagram and outliers

The Galactic Extinction

(Elvis, Hao + 2012)

<E(B-V)>=0.019

Schlegel, Finkbeiner, & Davis, 1998

XMM


Type 1 agn seds in the cosmos a single form mixing diagram and outliers

Variability Restriction

(Elvis, Hao + 2012)

Restricted Dates: 2004-2007

All data: 2001-2007

OPT SED Quadratic Fitting

Restricted Dates:2004-2007

All data:2001-2007

XMM


Broad emission line correction

(Elvis, Hao + 2012)

Broad Emission Line Correction


Ew of sdss dr7

EW of SDSS DR7

Line σ>10

(avoid the lines at the edge of the spectrum)

Line # of Quasars

Lyα: 8068

CIV: 36350

CIII]: 35650

MgII: 36730

Hγ: 15722

Hβ: 23063

OIII4960: 11027

OIII5008: 20567

Hα: 12060

Gaussian Fit

Log Normal Fit

EW Measurement

from Spectra×200


Broad emission line correction1

(Elvis, Hao + 2012)

Broad Emission Line Correction


Type 1 agn seds in the cosmos a single form mixing diagram and outliers

Broad Emission Line


Cosmos agn on mixing diagram2

(Hao + 2012b)

COSMOS AGN on Mixing Diagram


Type 1 agn seds in the cosmos a single form mixing diagram and outliers

XMM-COSMOS, R06, E94 Mixing Diagram

(Hao + 2012a)

σint2=σdis2-Err2

σint, OPT=0.20

σint, NIR=0.36

σint, OPT=0.23

σint, NIR=0.36

σint, OPT=0.25

σint, NIR=0.32


Type 1 agn seds in the cosmos a single form mixing diagram and outliers

XMM-COSMOS, R06, E94 Mixing Diagram

(Hao + 2012a)

αOPT

Same Intrinsic Dispersion

αNIR

Bayesian method (Kelly + 2007)


Sdss spitzer hot dust poor quasars

(Hao + 2011)

SDSS-Spitzer Hot-Dust Poor Quasars

E94

E94

# of HDP: 17/195


Appl a evolutionary tracks on mixing diagram preliminary results ulirg

Appl. a) Evolutionary Tracks on Mixing Diagram Preliminary Results: ULIRG

two z=3 disk

(Hao + 2012d in prep)

0.00 Gyr

0.49 Gyr

0.98 Gyr

In collaboration with Chris Hayward


Appl a evolutionary tracks on mixing diagram preliminary results quasar phase

Appl. a) Evolutionary Tracks on Mixing Diagram Preliminary Results: Quasar Phase?

10×AGN luminosity

100 obs directions:

no direction has quasar phase


Type 1 agn seds in the cosmos a single form mixing diagram and outliers

Extreme Example


Type 1 agn seds in the cosmos a single form mixing diagram and outliers

XID=2532 Spectra (z=1.297)

CIII] FWHM:~20Å~1400 km/s

MgII

CIII

CII


Other mixing diagram outliers ii ulirg quasar

Other Mixing Diagram Outliers II. ULIRG/Quasar

HST

Spitzer-IRAC1

logLbol~47Lbol~1014L

Hyper-LIRG


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