Managing an integrated mission
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Managing an Integrated Mission. Gale A. Buchanan. Introduction. 1.As an Administration Head, you have the responsibility for integrating the 3 missions of the Land Grant University’s teaching, research, and extension.

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Managing an integrated mission

Managing an Integrated Mission

Gale A. Buchanan



1.As an Administration Head, you have the responsibility for integrating the 3 missions of the Land Grant University’s teaching, research, and extension.

2. Note, I did not say managing teaching, research and extension missions. You have Associates or Directors to do that.

Introduction cont d

Introduction Cont’d

3.What makes your job as Dean, Vice President, or just Administrative Head (“AH” for short) unique, is the true integration of multiple functions or missions into a single cohesive mission.

Introduction cont d1

Introduction Cont’d.

4. It is not just research, extension, and teaching in your college, your responsibilities must bring into place other relevant components of the university as well as other agencies and organizations.


b. Other federal agencies

c. Commodity and trade organizations

d. Other universities



  • Most of us come with knowledge of and close familiarity with only one, sometimes two of the missions of the typical college.

  • So we all start with some biases.

  • Most of us also come with some voids in our knowledge base.

  • It’s your job to get “up to speed” in all missions and in the process learn to have respect and appreciation for all missions equally, or shall we say appropriately.

  • Fortunately, most who become administrators are not adverse to learning.

  • One of the most challenging things for me personally was to become familiar with programs completely outside my field of training and experience.


Evolution of the tripartite mission

Evolution of the Tripartite Mission

Evolution continued

Evolution Continued

  • The 1862 Morrill act provided for instructional program in agriculture and mechanic acts.

    A. Early deans had unbelievable problems.

    (1). First, what to teach? Some believed that agriculture couldn’t be taught.

    (2). Dollars provided for in the Morrill act were constantly siphoned off for other programs, that’s what happened in Georgia.

Evolution continued1

Evolution Continued

Recognized early on that research was a sure fire way to generate new information that would be exceedingly helpful in teaching programs.

Evolution continued2

Evolution Continued

As the new universities gained stature, it became obvious that there was an abundance of information – certainly a help forteaching but there was such an abundance of information that would benefit the public at large. Thus, the concept of taking the University to the people was born – extension. First, farmers,institutes, trains. Soon a county agent was appointed in Texas and then President Teddy Roosevelt formed the Country Life Commission that recommended a National system of county agricultural agents. Finally, the passage of the Smith-Lever Act formalized the 3rd component of the tripartite mission.

Evolution continued3

Evolution Continued

a. Depending upon the particular structure, each administrative head has a director or associate dean or someone with such a title to manage the respective programs.

b. Thus the real job of making the three missions into a cohesive college mission is the exclusive purview of the AH or Dean – your job.

Our integrated mission is the foundation of our organizational culture

Our Integrated Mission Is the Foundation of Our Organizational Culture

Integrated mission continued

Integrated Mission-Continued

  • There was a time when there were sharply defined missions for research, teaching and extension. But not anymore.

  • Most of us now clearly recognize the importance of integrating these three separate missions.

  • Interesting to watch other colleges and institutions work to integrate these functions.

    • a. Colleges in the University of Georgia

    • b. USDA -- ARS

What do we mean by integration

What Do We Mean by Integration?

1.To make complete

2. To form into a more complete harmonious or coordinated entity.

3. To unite (as a part or an element) with something else.

4. To promote synergy

Integration cont d

Integration Cont’d.

  • Managing an integrated mission

  • a. Must have good idea of the integrated mission before you can manage it.

  • b. Must have a pretty good idea of what you want to achieve.

Culture is a style or philosophy that is passed from one generation to another

Culture Is a Style or Philosophy That Is Passed From One Generation to Another.

Culture cont d

Culture Cont’d.

-- Must learn to appreciate what you are integrating.

--Must learn culture of all aspects of missions.

a. Build on the culture from which you came.

b. Waste no time in learning the culture of other missions of your responsibility.

The components of the land grant mission have a distinct culture

The Components of the Land Grant Mission Have a Distinct Culture




Components cont d

Components Cont’d.

  • Recognize that each mission has a distinct culture.

  • You have or will have an expert on your staff who knows all the answers about each respective mission. Use them! Your job is to get them to work together, which is not an easy task!

Managing an integrated mission

Recognition and Appreciation of the Differences Between Cultures Is EssentialforSuccessful Management.

Recognition continued

Recognition Continued

1.The first thing you must do is take stock of what you know and more importantly, what you don’t know.

2.Learn your strengths and weaknesses.

3.Recognize that the cultures of teaching, research and extension are quite different

4.Your job is to bridge the cultures – not an easy task. But a very important one.

Instructional culture

  • What are some of the characteristics of the instructional culture?

  • a. Usually includes people who have social interests and concerns -- people who appreciate people.

  • b. Has strong belief in faculty governance.

  • c. Teaching gives you experience in teaching – not in administration or managing teaching programs.

Instructional Culture

Instructional culture cont d

Instructional Culture Cont’d.

d. Easy to assume you know more than you really know.

e. Most scientists are unprepared for the myriad of rules and regulations affecting teaching. Many rules and regulations seem irrelevant and unnecessary to many scientists.

f. Good teachers have extraordinary allegiance to students and teaching programs.

Instructional culture continued

  • Most teachers enjoy working with much minimum supervision.

  • Many teachers feel unappreciated.

  • Peer evaluation is essential to a successful career

  • Successful integration of teaching and research or teaching and service will greatly benefit students.

  • Have been inspired to teach by a faculty mentor

  • Enjoy an audience

  • .Most enjoy intrinsic rewards to teaching (rather than monetary)

Instructional Culture (Continued)

Characteristics of research culture

Highly Competitive

Scientific injury highest priority

Grants and contracts are a tool for success

Documentation/ impacts are essential


Define a problem

Assign responsibility

Get out of the way of the faculty working on the problem

Hold accountable

Publication of peer reviewed results

Characteristics of Research Culture

Not much focus or emphasis on process except for

Not Much Focus or Emphasis on Process Except For:

1.Grant writing process

2.Conformity with federal rules and regulations

3.Accountability through peer review

4.Promotion and Tenure

Extension culture what is the nature of extension culture local county connections

Importance of county funding


priorities through

local advisory


Relationships are paramount

Politically active

A successful college will fully utilize extension’s grassroots, political relations and help the total college

Extension CultureWhat is the nature of extension culture?-- Local/County connections

Extension culture continued

Connected to research, not driven by it

Driven by local relationships

Publishing and writing not as important as “doing,” but is now essential for Promotion and Tenure

Try things rather than controlling variables

More diverse and less focused than research and teaching programs (4-H, Community Resource Development).

Extension Culture (Continued)

Extension culture continued1

Extension Culture(Continued)

  • a. Responsiveness/Helping others

    • 1. Programs and interests change based on recent events

    • 2. Work based on verbal/handshake agreements

    • 3. Difficult to say “NO”

    • 4. Often here more allegiance to commodities, special interest groups, local clientele thanto college

Extension culture continued2

Extension Culture (Continued)

  • Learn by doing

  • b.Try things even if research is not yet available

  • c. Respect for other ways of knowing such as experience and observation

  • d. Borrow from everyone, seldom thinking of giving proper credit

  • e. Results driven

Impacts and outcomes are used to distinguish extension from other forms of informal education

Impacts and Outcomes Are Used to Distinguish Extension From Other Forms of Informal Education

  • In one sense, extension conducts formal education – Just with different time structures

  • Our programs are definitive and expected to have an impact.

Process driven

Process Driven

a.The committee of the whole is the extension operational culture rather than delegating responsibilities to an individual or small group

b. Each individual had his/her fingerprints on something.

c. Important to recall that process is critically important in the conduct of each function.

d. Their integration, consequently must embrace a process that calls into play acknowledgement of the specific nature of each functional process.

Does teaching research and extension have a partnership or an alliance

Does Teaching Research and Extension Have a Partnership or an Alliance?


a. Limited, clearly defined

2. Alliances

a. Flexible, open-minded

3. Clearly, your three functions are partnerships but also have alliances

4. Such diversity of relationships strengthenrelationships.

Importance of engagement

Importance of Engagement

  • 1. Proactive connecting of participants with individual missions within the institution

  • Proactive involvement of stake holders with the programs and projects within the institution.

Projects vs programs

Projects Vs. Programs

1. Projects

-- Short term, accomplishment specific

2. Programs

-- Series of actions/activities that lead to a

desired outcome

3.The integrated mission has both projects and programs

4.Must realize this to strengthen the total process

Keys to success in managing an integrated mission

Keys to Success in Managing an Integrated Mission

d. Have a plan to get you to where you want to go

e. Learn how to delegate effectively

f. Learn to effectively resolve disputes

g. Maintain high standards

a. Know and appreciate your resource base

b. Have good leader for each primary mission of teaching, research and extension

c. Know where you want to go, “What is the objective?”

Realize the importance of the strengths of an integrated (unified) mission

Gale s cardinal rules of administration

Gale’s Cardinal Rules of Administration

These rules sum up what I have learned in 25 years of administering agricultural programs.

Managing an integrated mission


Do not keep someone on your staff who does not share you philosophy.

Managing an integrated mission


When you are convinced that an action must be taken, then take it.



  • In the end, your success as a dean will be judged by the success of the total program.

  • a. What are the quantifiable indicators?

  • b. How might the responsible use of resources be measured?

Managing an integrated mission

Leadershipis the capacity to articulate a sharedvision and move it through effective managementof resources and missions

Leadership cont d

Leadership Cont’d.

  • Effective and appropriate style of leadership makes your job of managing an integrated mission easier. Be a good listener but act decisively.

  • Failure to have effective leadership throughout your organization ensures failure or certainly not the success desired.

  • If you have a problem with quality of leadership in a position – you have two options.

    • Improve leadership, or failing that

    • Find new leaders

Leadership cont d1

Leadership Cont’d.

  • Do NOT keep anyone in your administration who doesn’t share your basic philosophy. I’m not talking about someone who just challenges. I’m talking about fundamental differences of philosophy. They will finally kill you. You must get them first if you want to survive.



Think in terms of multiculturalism using your ability to see how different organizational cultures and individuals benefit the whole rather than push for a assimilative mono-cultural melting pot.

Thank You.

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