BIEN 001 Introduction to Biomedical Engineering Methods Module 1: Introduction to Computers, Flowcharting and Programming in C Roger H. Johnson, email@example.com September 5, 2000. Objectives: • Introduction to Computers and Computing Environment at Marquette.
Module 1: Introduction to Computers,
Flowcharting and Programming in C
Roger H. Johnson, firstname.lastname@example.org
September 5, 2000
• Introduction to Computers
and Computing Environment at Marquette.
• Develop problem-solving strategies through flow charting.
• Introduction to program development environment.
• Introduction to C language programming.
• Develop two real C programs and run them.
• Computing History
• Computer Constituents
• Evolution of Programming
• Essential Programming Steps
• Develop Two Programs in C
• Blaise Pascal and the mechanical adder
Pascal was a French genius and mathematician
who died young after religious mania.
In 1642 he invented a mechanical calculator to assist
in the adding of long columns of numbers in his
father’s tax office.
His most important writing is Thoughts on Religion.
• Gottfried Wilhelm Leibnitz’ adder/multiplier
German invention of 1673 (or1694)
which used stepped-gear-wheels.
• Joseph Jacquard and his pasteboard loom cards
1812: Pasteboard card read by the loom.
Hole pattern determined thread combinations.
• Charles Babbage and his analytical engine
1830’s: First the Difference Engine, which would have been
two tons of brass, steel and pewter clockwork.
1840: Then the Analytical Engine which could decide between
two courses of action. Steam-engine-powered, would
read punched cards, compute, request cards with bell.
1890: Used punched cards to process census information
and speed tabulation.
• Howard Aikens and the Mark I
1944: Harvard Mark I. Used mechanical counters and
electromagnetic relays to control its operation.
• John Mauchly and John Eckert and the Eniac
1946: Huge vacuum-tube computer; part of the war effort.
Ballistic computations and code-breaking.
• John Backus and FORTRAN
1954: First inovation to translate human-intelligible
language into machine language.
• Kernighan and Ritchie and C
1970’s: Dominant language in scientific programming today.
FORTRAN 77 persists and other language, such as Pascal,
Basic, and Cobol are used in niches.
• Computer Constituents
CPU = central processing unit
= control unit + arithmetic and logical unit
Control Unit: Controls timing and directs all
Arithmetic Logic Unit: Makes all decisions
and performs calculations.
Memory: Stores instructions and data live
within the computer.
Input: Devices which input information into memory.
Output: Devices which print or display data from
Machine language: sequence of zero’s and one’s
= “binary string”.
(refer to handout on binary number system)
Assembly language: uses keywords to stand for
sequences of zero’s and one’s:
“ADD” = 0010001110001111
One keyword is one line of code
is one binary string is one instruction.
Compiler level: (“high-level” resembles English)
e.g. C = A + B
One line of code can contain several words and
require many machine language instructions.
Object oriented: New “pictorial” method we
won’t get into.
1) A clear statement of the problem:
Decide what it is you really want to do. Helps to
decide if computer is really the way to do it.
2) A rough or general solution algorithm:
Write down in brief format the steps required
to solve the problem.
3) A refined algorithm of the solution:
More detailed sequence of steps.
4) A flowchart of the full solution process:
Draw a block diagram or “flow diagram”
of the computer program.
5) Computer language coding + documentation:
A line-by-line written version of computer code.
6) Creation of a computer file of the coding:
Type in the code using a text editor.
7) Compile and run the file:
Type a command which creates the object file
and the machine language version of code.
8) Obtain sufficient output to test the full
solution algorithm for generality.
An algorithm is a description of a solution
method. Synonyms are “procedure”, “method”,
“technique” or “(set of) rule(s)”.
In the programming context,
an algorithm must possess these characteristics:
• It must end after a finite number of steps.
• It must be describable by a finite sequence of
steps or instructions.
• It must be capable of dealing with all members
of a particular class of problem.
A flowchart is a pictorial representation of an
Flowcharts are sometimes called “block diagrams”
or “flow diagrams”.
A flowchart is a schematic of the logic used
in problem solution and, properly used,
should aid in the development
of a sound logical approach.
A completed flowchart should exactly represent
the sequence of steps coded into the program,
and can help avoid a number of common
C program to solve two linear equations
with two unknowns.
Of the several methods to solve this problem,
we choose to solve for x and y
by the use of determinants.
x + 2y = 5
5x - y = 3
Ax + By = C
Dx + Ey = F
is not allowed. This would happen with parallel lines:
x + 2y = 5
3x + 6y = 10
x + 2y = 5
-2x -4y = -10
Steps 1 through 4 should be done
before you come in to lab:
1) Statement of the problem.
What we just did.
2) General Algorithm:
an overall solution process
which should consist of numbered steps.
3) Refined Algorithm:
expand the general algorithm;
add major variable names or formulas;
add solution detail to the plan.
4) Flow Chart: give complete control process;
supply minor control variables;
use algorithm-defined variables and formulas;
think through “what will happen if?”.
5) Program Coding: uses all of the above;
supplies the input and output
detail and documentation;
provides adequate comments.
1) Open data file.
3) read coefficients
4) write system
5) calculate determinants
6) test for output case, process and output
1.1 Query for input filename
1.2 Open input file
2.1 For all data
3.1 Read coefficients A, B, C, D, E, F
3.2 If end of data, go to 6.9.
4.1 Write system: Ax + By = C
Dx + Ey = F
5.1 Den = AE-DB
5.2 Xnum = CE-FB
5.3 Ynum = AF-DC
6.1 If Den !=0, go to 6.5
6.2 If Xnum=0, write “no unique solution”
6.3 If Ynum !=0, write “no solution”
6.4 Go to 3.1
6.5 X = Xnum/Den
6.6 Y = Ynum/Den
6.7 Write “‘x =‘ X; ‘y=‘ Y.”
6.8 Go to 3.1