Chapter 5 work and energy
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Chapter 5 Work and Energy. Section 5.1 Work. Work is done on an object only when a net force acts on the object to displace it in the direction of a component of the net force. Work = Force x displacement x cos Θ W= fd ( cosΘ ) Work is measured in Nm or Joules. Calculating Work.

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Chapter 5 Work and Energy

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Chapter 5 work and energy

Chapter 5Work and Energy


Section 5 1 work

Section 5.1 Work

  • Work is done on an object only when a net force acts on the object to displace it in the direction of a component of the net force.

    • Work = Force x displacement x cosΘ

    • W=fd(cosΘ)

    • Work is measured in Nm or Joules


Calculating work

Calculating Work

When Force and Distance are in the same direction, cosΘ is 1 and W = Fd


Work vs effort only the second box requires work

Work vs. Effort : only the Second Box Requires “Work”.


Example problem

Example Problem

A box is dragged across a floor by a 100N force directed 60o above the horizontal. How much work does the force do in pulling the object 8m?


Example problem 2

Example Problem #2

Decide if work is done and if so, the sign of the work for each case:

a) A crane lifting a bucket of concrete

b) The force of gravity on the bucket being lifted

c) An athlete holds a weight up in a fixed position

d) An athlete lowers a weight slowly

e) A person pushes a book across the table.


Power

Power

  • Power is the rate at which work is done.

  • Power = work/elapsed time

  • P = W/Δt

  • The SI Unit for power is the watt (W) which equals one Joule per second (J/s)


Power1

Power


Example problem1

Example Problem

  • A 50 kg girl climbs a flight of stairs that is 5.0 m high. Calculate the power output if she takes 10.0 s to do this.

  • Find the work done. (Recall that her force is equal to mg)

  • 2. Calculate the power.


Energy potential and kinetic

Energy – Potential and kinetic

  • Energy: The ability to do Work

  • Potential Energy: Energy of position or stored energy

  • ΔPE = mghwhere “h” refers to height.


Other forms of stored energy

Other Forms of Stored Energy

  • Compressed spring

  • Bow pulled back in archery

  • Stretched rubber band


Kinetic energy

Kinetic Energy

  • Kinetic Energy: the mechanical energy of motion. It is how much work an object is currently doing.

  • KE = ½ mv2


Energy and work

Energy and Work

  • The SI unit for energy is the Joule. This is the same unit for work.

  • When work is done on an object, energy is transformed from one form to another.

  • The sum of the changes in PE, KE and heat energy are equal to the work done on the object.

  • Mechanical energy is transformed into heat energy when work is done to overcome friction.


Elastic potential energy

Elastic Potential Energy

  • When a string is stretched or compressed, it gains elastic potential energy.


Elastic potential energy1

Elastic Potential Energy

  • The force that pulls it back and attempts to restore the spring to equilbriumis the restoring force.

  • PE = ½ kx2

  • Elastic PE = ½ (spring constant)(distance compressed or stretched)2


Elastic potential energy2

Elastic Potential Energy


Example problem2

Example Problem

  • A spring with a force constant of 5.2 N/m has a relaxed length of 2.45 m. When a mass is attached to the end of a string, and allowed to come to rest, the vertical length of the spring is 3.57 m. Calculate the elastic potential energy of the spring (page 180 problem #1, Answer: 3.3 J)


Conservation of energy

Conservation of Energy

  • Law of Conservation of Energy: Energy cannot be created or destroyed.

  • Total amount of ME in a system remains constant if no work is done by any other force besides gravity.

  • Δ KE = ΔPE

  • KE and PE before an interaction equals all the KE and PE after the interactionl

  • KE0 + PEo = KEf + PEf


Mechanical energy

Mechanical Energy


Example problem3

Example Problem:

  • Bo flings a 0.20 kg pool ball off a 0.68 m high pool table and the ball hits the floor with a speed of 6.0 m/s. How fast was the ball moving when it left the pool table?


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