Colonial South America. New Granada . . . Had fewer creoles than Mexico. Several revolts in the eighteenth century against the high taxes. Creoles cooperated with pardos (free black or mulatto craftsmen). Both supported Fernando VII, deposed by Napoleon.
likeness of Simon Bolivar
(1783 – 1830)
Jose de San Martin by colonial troops.
1778 - 1850
sugar and cotton in the north and coffee in the south.