Identifying and assessing benchmarks in the sequence of psychology education and training
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Identifying and Assessing Benchmarks in the Sequence of Psychology Education and Training. Nadya A. Fouad, Ph.D. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. THANK YOU.

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Identifying and assessing benchmarks in the sequence of psychology education and training

Identifying and Assessing Benchmarks in the Sequence of Psychology Education and Training

Nadya A. Fouad, Ph.D.

University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee


Thank you

THANK YOU

  • Many thanks to Cathi Grus, APA Education Directorate and Nadine Kaslow, Emory University and the members of the Benchmarks Workgroup and Assessment Workgroup for their hard work and contributions to competency movement


Cases

Cases

  • Student A: Applying for internship. Faculty in the program have had concerns about her from the middle of first year. Concerns have included ethical decision making, boundaries with clients, and poor self-reflection. Academic grades are in the A and B range, though, so the faculty vote to allow her to apply for internship. Letters are vaguely positive, because faculty cannot totally identify her strengths or challenges.


Cases1

Cases

  • Student B: 2nd Year doctoral student end of 2nd year practicum. Faculty instructor has had some concerns about student, but all reports from on-site supervisor have been glowing. End of April, on-site supervisor asks for a meeting to discuss serious reservations about the student, including violations of confidentiality, seeking a personal, sexual relationship with a client, and manipulating the evaluation process.


Cases2

Cases

  • Student C: 1st year doctoral student in first practicum notes in journal of fear of African-American clients. Responses to ethics vignette indicate lack of knowledge about ethics code and poor ethical decision-making. Initial consultation with supervisor indicates that student had been misrepresenting client contact.


Overview

Overview

  • Overview of Competency Movement

  • Competency Benchmarks

  • Competency Assessment Toolkit


Context

CONTEXT


A culture of competence roberts borden christiansen lopez 2005

a “culture of competence”Roberts, Borden, Christiansen & Lopez (2005)

  • a shift within professional psychology toward an emphasis on the acquisition and maintenance of competence as a primary goal


Culture of competence

Culture of Competence

  • Recent years have witnessed a burgeoning interest in a competency-based approach to student learning outcomes in professional psychology

  • Educational programs are expected to produce competence

  • Professional credentialing bodies are expected to certify individuals as competent

  • Policy makers laud competence

  • Consumers increasingly demand it


Are all equal

Are all equal?


Culture of competence1

Culture of Competence

It is time to embrace a culture of the assessment of competence

  • fosters learning

  • evaluates progress

  • assists in determining curriculum and training program effectiveness

  • advances the field

  • protects the public


Goal competent psychologists

Goal: Competent Psychologists

Choosing A Therapist That's Right for You!   


Identifying and assessing benchmarks in the sequence of psychology education and training

A Pedagogical Shift

  • Traditional models of education and training focus on learning objectives

    • Objective: aim or goal

    • Curriculum is designed to meet goals

  • Competency models focus on outcomes

    • Outcome: result, final state, achievement

    • Measurement of student learning


Culture of competence2

Culture of Competence

  • We can learn a lot from the efforts of our colleagues in education and the other health professions (medicine, pharmacy, nursing, dentistry)

    • Assessment of Competence Toolbox (American College of Graduate Medical Education (ACGME)

    • APA Guidelines for the Undergraduate Psychology Major (APA, 2007)


Identifying and assessing benchmarks in the sequence of psychology education and training

What is competence in professional psychology?What does it look like? How is it best assessed?


Identifying and assessing benchmarks in the sequence of psychology education and training

Key Competency Initiatives in Professional Psychology

NSCPP Core Competencies

APA Ethics code revised

BEA Task Force on Assessment of Competence

Model Curriculum for Training in Counseling Psychology

ADPTC CCTC Practicum Competencies

CoA revises G&P

APPIC Competencies Conf.

1990s 2000 2002 2006


Identifying and assessing benchmarks in the sequence of psychology education and training

**Rodolfa, E. R., Bent, R. J., Eisman, E., Nelson, P. D., Rehm, L., & Ritchie, P. (2005). A cube model for competency development: Implications for psychology educators and regulators. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 36, 347-354.


Identifying and assessing benchmarks in the sequence of psychology education and training

Key Competency Initiatives in Professional Psychology

NSCPP Core Competencies

APA Ethics code revised

BEA Task Force on Assessment of Competence

Model Curriculum for Training in Counseling Psychology

ADPTC CCTC Practicum Competencies

CoA revises G&P

Competency Benchmarks Work Group

APPIC Competencies Conf.

Competency Assessment Toolkit

1990s 2000 2002 2006


Competency cube

Competency Cube

  • General Consensus

  • 12 competency areas

  • BUT– what does each competency look like across a developmental trajectory?


Assessment of competency benchmarks work group

Assessment of Competency Benchmarks Work Group

  • Chair: Nadya Fouad, Ph.D.

  • Two-day meeting September 2006

  • Gathered individuals knowledgeable about domains of competence

  • 32 member work group


Goals

Goals

  • Build on existing knowledge and advance the shift to a “culture of competence”

  • Promote excellence in professional education and training

  • Operationalize a developmental model of competence in professional psychology

  • To better inform understanding of “entry level to practice” in light of the APA policy on Education and Training Leading to Licensure


Caveats

Caveats

  • Applies most directly to those preparing for the practice of health service provision, i.e., those who will seek licensure

  • Not meant to be prescriptive, a tool for programs to implement if they chose and in accordance with their model of education and training

  • Assessment of competence must be balanced with the primary mission of the program: education and training


Product of the group

Product of the Group

  • A document that delineates competency benchmarks, or measurable standards of performance, that are developmental and integrated through the sequence of professional education and training


How are the benchmarks organized

How are the Benchmarks Organized?

Core Foundational and Functional Competencies

  • Essential Component: what are the critical elements of/what knowledge/skills/attitudes that make up this competency?

  • Behavioral Anchor: what would it look like if you saw it (essential component)?


Essential components

Essential Components


Essential component

Essential Component

  • Readiness for Entry to Practice:

  • Consistently conducts self in a professional manner across and settings and situations


Behavioral anchors

Behavioral Anchors


Behavioral anchors1

Behavioral Anchors

Professionalism

B. Deportment

Readiness for Entry to Practice

  • Verbal and nonverbal communications are appropriate to the professional context including in challenging interactions


Benchmarks

Benchmarks

  • Benchmarks document underwent period public comment (fall 2007)

  • Group charged by APA Board of Educational Affairs to review comment and made recommendations (spring/summer 2008) (e.g 15 competencies)

  • Final version went to BEA Fall 2008

  • Manuscript in press in TEPP


Competency assessment for toolkit for professional psychology

Competency Assessment for Toolkit for Professional Psychology

  • Chair: Nadine Kaslow, Ph.D.

  • Six members in work group

  • Charge from APA Board of Educational Affairs: Develop a “Toolkit” for professional psychology

  • Purpose: Promote broader implementation of competence assessment and provide information about application of assessment methods to the assessment of competence

  • Coordinated effort with Benchmarks Work Group


Components of toolkit

Components of Toolkit

  • Background and Introduction

  • Assessment Method Fact Sheets

    • Description

    • Use specific to core competencies, formative vs. summative, developmental level

    • Implementation

    • Psychometrics

    • Strengths/Challenges

    • Future Directions


Assessment methods in toolkit

360 evaluation

Portfolio

OSCE

Structured Written & Oral Exams

Case Presentation

Simulation/Role Play

Competence Evaluation Rating Form

Self-Assessment

Ratings of live or recorded performance

Standardized Client Interview

Client/Patient Process/Outcome Measure

Consumer Satisfaction Survey

End of Rotation Performance Review

Assessment Methods in Toolkit


Competency professionalism deportment

CompetencyProfessionalism: Deportment

Note: 1 = very useful method, 2 = useful, 3 = potentially useful


Identifying and assessing benchmarks in the sequence of psychology education and training

Table 1

Toolkit Assessment Measures, Foundational and Functional Competencies, Formative and Summative Evaluation, and

Developmental Level


Components of toolkit cont

Components of Toolkit (cont.)

  • Grid of Assessment Methods and Competencies Best Used for

  • Glossary of Terms

  • Reference


Toolkit next steps

Toolkit: Next Steps

  • Plan for Dissemination

    • On-line, downloadable resources for education and training programs methods to assess competence

    • Manuscript in press TEPP

    • Presentation at education and training council meetings

    • http://www.apa.org/ed/graduate/competency.html


Challenges

Challenges?

  • fostering an environment that supports enhancing excellence through assessment at the institutional, programmatic, and individual level; leadership to use results to strengthen

  • Training in “difficult conversations”


Challenges1

Challenges?

  • Recognize and articulate multiple roles trainers engage in and potential impact on evaluation

  • Knowledge of a range of assessment tools, access to resources “tool kits”


Cases3

Cases

  • Student A: Applying for internship. Faculty in the program have had concerns about her from the middle of first year. Concerns have included ethical decision making, boundaries with clients, and poor self-reflection. Academic grades are in the A and B range, though, so the faculty vote to allow her to apply for internship. Letters are vaguely positive, because faculty cannot totally identify her strengths or challenges.


Cases4

Cases

  • Student B: 2nd Year doctoral student end of 2nd year practicum. Faculty instructor has had some concerns about student, but all reports from on-site supervisor have been glowing. End of April, on-site supervisor asks for a meeting to discuss serious reservations about the student, including violations of confidentiality, seeking a personal, sexual relationship with a client, and manipulating the evaluation process.


Cases5

Cases

  • Student C: 1st year doctoral student in first practicum notes in journal of fear of African-American clients. Responses to ethics vignette indicate lack of knowledge about ethics code and poor ethical decision-making. Initial consultation with supervisor indicates that student had been misrepresenting client contact.


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Questions/Comments

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