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Identifying and Assessing Benchmarks in the Sequence of Psychology Education and Training. Nadya A. Fouad, Ph.D. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. THANK YOU.

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Identifying and assessing benchmarks in the sequence of psychology education and training

Identifying and Assessing Benchmarks in the Sequence of Psychology Education and Training

Nadya A. Fouad, Ph.D.

University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee


Thank you
THANK YOU Psychology Education and Training

  • Many thanks to Cathi Grus, APA Education Directorate and Nadine Kaslow, Emory University and the members of the Benchmarks Workgroup and Assessment Workgroup for their hard work and contributions to competency movement


Cases
Cases Psychology Education and Training

  • Student A: Applying for internship. Faculty in the program have had concerns about her from the middle of first year. Concerns have included ethical decision making, boundaries with clients, and poor self-reflection. Academic grades are in the A and B range, though, so the faculty vote to allow her to apply for internship. Letters are vaguely positive, because faculty cannot totally identify her strengths or challenges.


Cases1
Cases Psychology Education and Training

  • Student B: 2nd Year doctoral student end of 2nd year practicum. Faculty instructor has had some concerns about student, but all reports from on-site supervisor have been glowing. End of April, on-site supervisor asks for a meeting to discuss serious reservations about the student, including violations of confidentiality, seeking a personal, sexual relationship with a client, and manipulating the evaluation process.


Cases2
Cases Psychology Education and Training

  • Student C: 1st year doctoral student in first practicum notes in journal of fear of African-American clients. Responses to ethics vignette indicate lack of knowledge about ethics code and poor ethical decision-making. Initial consultation with supervisor indicates that student had been misrepresenting client contact.


Overview
Overview Psychology Education and Training

  • Overview of Competency Movement

  • Competency Benchmarks

  • Competency Assessment Toolkit


Context
CONTEXT Psychology Education and Training


A culture of competence roberts borden christiansen lopez 2005
a “culture of competence” Psychology Education and TrainingRoberts, Borden, Christiansen & Lopez (2005)

  • a shift within professional psychology toward an emphasis on the acquisition and maintenance of competence as a primary goal


Culture of competence
Culture of Competence Psychology Education and Training

  • Recent years have witnessed a burgeoning interest in a competency-based approach to student learning outcomes in professional psychology

  • Educational programs are expected to produce competence

  • Professional credentialing bodies are expected to certify individuals as competent

  • Policy makers laud competence

  • Consumers increasingly demand it


Are all equal
Are all equal? Psychology Education and Training


Culture of competence1
Culture of Competence Psychology Education and Training

It is time to embrace a culture of the assessment of competence

  • fosters learning

  • evaluates progress

  • assists in determining curriculum and training program effectiveness

  • advances the field

  • protects the public


Goal competent psychologists
Goal: Competent Psychologists Psychology Education and Training

Choosing A Therapist That's Right for You!   


A Pedagogical Shift Psychology Education and Training

  • Traditional models of education and training focus on learning objectives

    • Objective: aim or goal

    • Curriculum is designed to meet goals

  • Competency models focus on outcomes

    • Outcome: result, final state, achievement

    • Measurement of student learning


Culture of competence2
Culture of Competence Psychology Education and Training

  • We can learn a lot from the efforts of our colleagues in education and the other health professions (medicine, pharmacy, nursing, dentistry)

    • Assessment of Competence Toolbox (American College of Graduate Medical Education (ACGME)

    • APA Guidelines for the Undergraduate Psychology Major (APA, 2007)


What is competence in professional psychology? Psychology Education and TrainingWhat does it look like? How is it best assessed?


Key Competency Initiatives in Professional Psychology Psychology Education and Training

NSCPP Core Competencies

APA Ethics code revised

BEA Task Force on Assessment of Competence

Model Curriculum for Training in Counseling Psychology

ADPTC CCTC Practicum Competencies

CoA revises G&P

APPIC Competencies Conf.

1990s 2000 2002 2006


**Rodolfa, E. R., Bent, R. J., Eisman, E., Nelson, P. D., Rehm, L., & Ritchie, P. (2005). A cube model for competency development: Implications for psychology educators and regulators. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 36, 347-354.


Key Competency Initiatives in Professional Psychology Rehm, L., & Ritchie, P. (2005). A cube model for competency development: Implications for psychology educators and regulators.

NSCPP Core Competencies

APA Ethics code revised

BEA Task Force on Assessment of Competence

Model Curriculum for Training in Counseling Psychology

ADPTC CCTC Practicum Competencies

CoA revises G&P

Competency Benchmarks Work Group

APPIC Competencies Conf.

Competency Assessment Toolkit

1990s 2000 2002 2006


Competency cube
Competency Cube Rehm, L., & Ritchie, P. (2005). A cube model for competency development: Implications for psychology educators and regulators.

  • General Consensus

  • 12 competency areas

  • BUT– what does each competency look like across a developmental trajectory?


Assessment of competency benchmarks work group
Assessment of Competency Benchmarks Work Group Rehm, L., & Ritchie, P. (2005). A cube model for competency development: Implications for psychology educators and regulators.

  • Chair: Nadya Fouad, Ph.D.

  • Two-day meeting September 2006

  • Gathered individuals knowledgeable about domains of competence

  • 32 member work group


Goals
Goals Rehm, L., & Ritchie, P. (2005). A cube model for competency development: Implications for psychology educators and regulators.

  • Build on existing knowledge and advance the shift to a “culture of competence”

  • Promote excellence in professional education and training

  • Operationalize a developmental model of competence in professional psychology

  • To better inform understanding of “entry level to practice” in light of the APA policy on Education and Training Leading to Licensure


Caveats
Caveats Rehm, L., & Ritchie, P. (2005). A cube model for competency development: Implications for psychology educators and regulators.

  • Applies most directly to those preparing for the practice of health service provision, i.e., those who will seek licensure

  • Not meant to be prescriptive, a tool for programs to implement if they chose and in accordance with their model of education and training

  • Assessment of competence must be balanced with the primary mission of the program: education and training


Product of the group
Product of the Group Rehm, L., & Ritchie, P. (2005). A cube model for competency development: Implications for psychology educators and regulators.

  • A document that delineates competency benchmarks, or measurable standards of performance, that are developmental and integrated through the sequence of professional education and training


How are the benchmarks organized
How are the Benchmarks Organized? Rehm, L., & Ritchie, P. (2005). A cube model for competency development: Implications for psychology educators and regulators.

Core Foundational and Functional Competencies

  • Essential Component: what are the critical elements of/what knowledge/skills/attitudes that make up this competency?

  • Behavioral Anchor: what would it look like if you saw it (essential component)?


Essential components
Essential Components Rehm, L., & Ritchie, P. (2005). A cube model for competency development: Implications for psychology educators and regulators.


Essential component
Essential Component Rehm, L., & Ritchie, P. (2005). A cube model for competency development: Implications for psychology educators and regulators.

  • Readiness for Entry to Practice:

  • Consistently conducts self in a professional manner across and settings and situations


Behavioral anchors
Behavioral Anchors Rehm, L., & Ritchie, P. (2005). A cube model for competency development: Implications for psychology educators and regulators.


Behavioral anchors1
Behavioral Anchors Rehm, L., & Ritchie, P. (2005). A cube model for competency development: Implications for psychology educators and regulators.

Professionalism

B. Deportment

Readiness for Entry to Practice

  • Verbal and nonverbal communications are appropriate to the professional context including in challenging interactions


Benchmarks
Benchmarks Rehm, L., & Ritchie, P. (2005). A cube model for competency development: Implications for psychology educators and regulators.

  • Benchmarks document underwent period public comment (fall 2007)

  • Group charged by APA Board of Educational Affairs to review comment and made recommendations (spring/summer 2008) (e.g 15 competencies)

  • Final version went to BEA Fall 2008

  • Manuscript in press in TEPP


Competency assessment for toolkit for professional psychology
Competency Assessment for Toolkit for Professional Psychology

  • Chair: Nadine Kaslow, Ph.D.

  • Six members in work group

  • Charge from APA Board of Educational Affairs: Develop a “Toolkit” for professional psychology

  • Purpose: Promote broader implementation of competence assessment and provide information about application of assessment methods to the assessment of competence

  • Coordinated effort with Benchmarks Work Group


Components of toolkit
Components of Toolkit Psychology

  • Background and Introduction

  • Assessment Method Fact Sheets

    • Description

    • Use specific to core competencies, formative vs. summative, developmental level

    • Implementation

    • Psychometrics

    • Strengths/Challenges

    • Future Directions


Assessment methods in toolkit

360 evaluation Psychology

Portfolio

OSCE

Structured Written & Oral Exams

Case Presentation

Simulation/Role Play

Competence Evaluation Rating Form

Self-Assessment

Ratings of live or recorded performance

Standardized Client Interview

Client/Patient Process/Outcome Measure

Consumer Satisfaction Survey

End of Rotation Performance Review

Assessment Methods in Toolkit


Competency professionalism deportment
Competency Psychology Professionalism: Deportment

Note: 1 = very useful method, 2 = useful, 3 = potentially useful


Table 1 Psychology

Toolkit Assessment Measures, Foundational and Functional Competencies, Formative and Summative Evaluation, and

Developmental Level


Components of toolkit cont
Components of Toolkit (cont.) Psychology

  • Grid of Assessment Methods and Competencies Best Used for

  • Glossary of Terms

  • Reference


Toolkit next steps
Toolkit: Next Steps Psychology

  • Plan for Dissemination

    • On-line, downloadable resources for education and training programs methods to assess competence

    • Manuscript in press TEPP

    • Presentation at education and training council meetings

    • http://www.apa.org/ed/graduate/competency.html


Challenges
Challenges? Psychology

  • fostering an environment that supports enhancing excellence through assessment at the institutional, programmatic, and individual level; leadership to use results to strengthen

  • Training in “difficult conversations”


Challenges1
Challenges? Psychology

  • Recognize and articulate multiple roles trainers engage in and potential impact on evaluation

  • Knowledge of a range of assessment tools, access to resources “tool kits”


Cases3
Cases Psychology

  • Student A: Applying for internship. Faculty in the program have had concerns about her from the middle of first year. Concerns have included ethical decision making, boundaries with clients, and poor self-reflection. Academic grades are in the A and B range, though, so the faculty vote to allow her to apply for internship. Letters are vaguely positive, because faculty cannot totally identify her strengths or challenges.


Cases4
Cases Psychology

  • Student B: 2nd Year doctoral student end of 2nd year practicum. Faculty instructor has had some concerns about student, but all reports from on-site supervisor have been glowing. End of April, on-site supervisor asks for a meeting to discuss serious reservations about the student, including violations of confidentiality, seeking a personal, sexual relationship with a client, and manipulating the evaluation process.


Cases5
Cases Psychology

  • Student C: 1st year doctoral student in first practicum notes in journal of fear of African-American clients. Responses to ethics vignette indicate lack of knowledge about ethics code and poor ethical decision-making. Initial consultation with supervisor indicates that student had been misrepresenting client contact.


Questions comments
Questions/Comments Psychology

  • Preparing….


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