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CGE Greenhouse Gas Inventory Hands-on Training Workshop INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES SECTOR. SECTION A IPCC 1996GL Approach and Steps. Definition of IP sector activities Differentiating non-energy and energy related emissions IPCC source and sub-source categories or disaggregation Estimation methods

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CGE Greenhouse Gas Inventory Hands-on Training Workshop INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES SECTOR

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Cge greenhouse gas inventory hands on training workshop industrial processes sector l.jpg

CGEGreenhouse Gas Inventory Hands-on Training WorkshopINDUSTRIAL PROCESSES SECTOR


Section a ipcc 1996gl approach and steps l.jpg

SECTION AIPCC 1996GL Approach and Steps

  • Definition of IP sector activities

  • Differentiating non-energy and energy related emissions

  • IPCC source and sub-source categories or disaggregation

  • Estimation methods

    • Choice of methods

    • Choice of activity data

    • Choice of default emission factors

  • Tools facilitating choice of EF and reporting

    • IPCC emission factor database (EFDB)

    • Tools facilitating reporting


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SECTION BGPG2000 Approach and Steps

  • Good practice principles

  • Choice of methods – Tier structure and selection criteria

  • GPG2000 potential key sources and decision trees


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SECTION C Problems Using IPCC 1996GLGPG2000 Options/Suggested Approaches

  • Difficulty in disaggregation of Country relevant Sources

  • Activity Data (AD) Collection and confidential business information (CBI)

  • Emissions Estimation methods and Reporting

  • Inappropriateness of Stoichiometric ratios as EFs

  • Lack of Emission Factors (2)

  • Lack of AD and EFs


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SECTION CProblems Using IPCC 1996GLand Recommendations

  • Other specific issues and

    • Use of notation keysin reporting Tables 1& 2

    • Activity data collection and reporting

    • Institutional arrangements

    • Recommended capacity building


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SECTION DIPCC 1996GL Source Category Specific Problems of AD and EF

GPG2000 Options


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SECTION EInventory Quality Improvement and Uncertainty Reduction

GPG2000 Approach – QA/QC


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SECTION ARevised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories(IPCC 1996GL)INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES SECTOR

Approach and Steps


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IPCC 1996GL Approach and StepsDefinition of IP Sector Activities

  • Non-energy related physical and chemical processes in production activities leading to transformation of raw materials and emissions of GHG (e.g. decomposition reactions)

  • Non-energy uses (NEU) of feedstock in process reactions or stage processes that do not only release heat but also act predominantly as reducing agent (e.g. metallurgical coke in the smelting of ores in metal production)


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IPCC 1996GL Approach and StepsDefinition of IP Sector Activities

  • Feedstock delivered to petrochemical plants and used for manufacture of other products and not for energy purposes (e.g. use of natural gas or other fossils in the manufacture of ammonia)

  • Production-related emissions NOT classified under IP but under energy sector are GHGs released from fuel combustion of feedstock in production activities as sources of energy / form of energy (i.e. heat, process steam or electricity generation).


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IPCC 1996GL Approach and StepsDifferentiating non-energy and energy related emissions in IPCC 1996GL Vol.3

  • Cement production section 2.3.1

  • Lime production , 2.4.1

  • Soda ash production and use 2.6.1

  • Ammonia production 2.8.1 and 2.8.2

  • Silicon carbide 2.11.1

  • Calcium carbide 2.11.2

  • Iron and steel 2.13.3.2

  • Ferro alloys 2.13.5.1

  • Aluminium 2.13.5.1


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Illustration of Non-Energy and Energy Related EmissionsIPCC 1996GL Vol. 3 (Reference Manual)

Differentiation of Non-Energy and Energy Related Emissions in IP sector


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IPCC 1996GL Approach and StepsIPCC Source and Sub-source Categories or Disaggregation

  • Tools for classification:

    • The IPCC inventory software (electronic version of IPCC worksheet)

    • Emission factor database (EFDB)


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Illustration with EFDB and Software

IPCC 1996GL Sources and Sub-source Categories/Disaggregation


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GHGs from IP sector(a) CO2, CH4, N2O(b) HFCs, PFCs, SF6(c) SO2,CO, NOx, NMVOCs

Relevant source categories

(ref.software long summary)


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IPCC 1996GL Approach and StepsGeneral Estimation Methodology

  • General equation

    TOTALij = AD j x EF ij

    • where:

      • TOTAL ij = process emission (tonne) of gas i from industrial sector j

      • AD j = amount of activity or production of process material (activity data) in industrial sector j (tonne/yr)

      • EF ij = emission factor (EF) associated with gas i per unit of activity in industrial sector j (tonne/tonne)


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IPCC 1996GL Approach andStepsChoice of Methods

  • For certain industrial processes, more than one estimation methodology is presented. These are:

    • Simplified approach referred to as Tier 1

    • More detailed methodology referred to as Tier 2


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IPCC 1996GL Approach and StepsChoice of Methods

  • Several options are also provided for certain industrial processes under Tier 1, such as Tier 1a, 1b, 1c; based on data availability and suitability of methods

  • Order of preference for Tier 1 methods 1a > 1b >1c

  • Encourages country-specific methods, documented and adequately referenced


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IPCC 1996GL Approach and StepsSample tiers by Sub-source Categories

  • 2B1 – Ammonia production (CO2)

    • Tier 1a – AD as natural gas consumption (m3) and EF (kgC/m3)

    • Tier 1b – AD as ammonia production (tonnes) and EF (tonne CO2/tonne NH3)

  • 2C5 – Calcium Carbide Production (CO2)

    • T1a – Consumption of petroleum coke (tonnes) and EF (tonne C/tonne Coke type)

    • T1b – Production of carbide


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IPCC 1996GL Approach and StepsTiers by Sub-source Categories

  • 2C – Metal production (Iron and Steel, Al, Ferro-alloys)

    • Tier 1a – Consumption of reducing agent (tonnes) and EF (tonne C/tonne reducing agent)

    • Tier 1b – Production of the metal (tonnes) and EF (tonne CO2/tonne metal)


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IPCC 1996GL Approach and StepsTiers by Sub-source Categories

  • PFCs from aluminum production

    • Tier 1a – Direct plant emissions data

    • Tier 1b – Estimation based on plant measurements and empirical estimation

    • Tire 1c – Based on aluminium production (tonnes) and default emission factor (kg/tonne Al)


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IPCC1996GL Approach and StepsTiers by Sub-source Categories

  • 2F – HCFC manufacture (HFC-23 release)

    • Tier 1 – AD (total production in tonnes) and Default EF (% of total production)

    • Tier2 – Direct emissions from plant specific measurements using standard methods

  • 2E – Consumption of ODS substitutes (HFCs, PFCs and SF6)

    • Tire 1a and Tier b – Potential emissions

    • Tier 2 – Actual emissions


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IPCC 1996GL Approach and StepsChoice of Activity Data

  • Plant level measurements or direct emissions reports with documented methodologies

  • Where direct measurements are not available, estimations are based on calculation with plant-specific data


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IPCC 1996GL Approach and StepsChoice of Activity Data

  • International data sets (United Nations data sets and Industry associations)

  • National databases where available from appropriate government ministries (e.g. statistics services, environment ministry, etc.)

  • Standard production statistics from national statistical publications


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IPCC 1996GL Approach and StepsChoice of Default Emission Factors

  • Process-reaction-based EFs (stoichiometric ratios)

  • Production-based emission factors

  • Technology-specific emission factors

  • Reported country-/region-specific plant-level measurements

  • IPCC emission factors database, a summary for process-reaction-based and technology-based EFs


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Illustrate Use of Emission Factor Database (EFDB) for IP Sector

IPCC 1996GL Approach and Steps


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Comparability of IPCC Technology-based Default EF and GPG2000 Plant-level EF

The Case of Aluminium Production Inventory in Ghana


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Good Practice Activity Data(Plant-level EF based on Tier 1a method)


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Consumption of Reducing Agent (Anode carbon)


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Net Carbon Consumption


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Comparability of Good Practice (Plant level and IPCC default)


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Emissions Estimating and Reporting Use of IPCC GHG Inventory Software

IPCC 1996GL Approach and Steps


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Reporting TablesLong Summary and Short Summary(Reference: IPCC GHG Inventory Software)


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SECTION B Good Practice Guidance and Uncertainty Management in NationalGreenhouse Gas Inventories (GPG2000)INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES SECTOR

Approach and Steps


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GPG2000 Approach and StepsGood Practice Principles

  • To produce GHG inventories that neither overestimate nor underestimate emissions so far as can be judged based on the principle of TCCCA, namely:

    Transparency; Consistency over time;

    Completeness, Comparability,

    Accuracy


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GPG2000 Approach and StepsGood Practice Principles

  • To use limited resources more efficiently for key sources

  • To reduce levels of uncertainty

  • To improve reporting and documentation

  • To apply quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) and improve transparency


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GPG2000 Approach and StepsChoice of Methods

  • Identifies potential IP sector key source categories

  • Provides decision-tree analysis for the selected sources

  • Describes source-category-specific good practice methods in adapting IPCC 1996GL to country-specific circumstances


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GPG2000 Approach and StepsChoice of Methods

  • Defines tier numbers for alternative names of (unnumbered) methods described in IPCC 1996GL

  • Provides Good Practice Guidance for various tier levels of assessment (Tier 1, 2, 3) for selected source categories


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GPG2000 Approach and StepsGPG2000 Potential Key Sources Identified

  • 2A1 – CO2 Emissions from Cement Production

  • 2A2 – CO2 Emissions from Lime Production

  • 2C1 – CO2 Emissions from the Iron and Steel Industry

  • 2B3 & 2B4 – N2O Emissions from Adipic Acid and Nitric Acid Production

  • 2C3 – PFCs Emissions from Aluminum Production

  • 2C4 – Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) emissions from Magnesium Production

  • 2E1 – HFC-23 Emissions from HCFC-22 Manufacture


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GPG2000 Approach and StepsGPG2000 Potential Key Sources Identified

  • 2F(1-5) – Emissions from Substitutes for Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS substitutes for HFCs and PFCs used in refrigeration, air-conditioning, foam blowing, fire extinguishers, aerosols, solvents )

  • 2F7 – SF6 Emissions from Electrical Equipment

  • 2F8 – SF6 Emissions from Other Sources of SF6

  • 2E3 – SF6 Emissions from Production of SF6

  • 2F6 – PFC, HFC, and SF6 Emissions from Semiconductor Manufacturing


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GPG2000 Approach and StepsDecision Trees, and Selection Criteria for Methods and Structured Tier Levels


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GPG2000 Approach and StepsDecision Trees, and SelectionCriteria for Methods and Tier Levels


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GPG2000 Approach and StepsSample Illustrations of Tier Level Methods in Adapting IPCC 1996GL Based onNational Circumstances

Reference Annex 3, Table 3 of the IP Handbook


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SECTION CReview of Problems Encountered in Using IPCC 1996GL andGPG2000 Options


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Potential Problems in Preparing IP Sector Inventory

  • Difficulty in disaggregation of country relevant sources into IPCC categories, particularly sub-source categories not listed in IPCC 1996GL


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Mapping National Industry Classification with IPCC Source Categories


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Potential problems in preparing IP Sector inventoryActivity Data Collection and CBI

  • Direct reporting of emissions without AD and/or EF to national institutions responsible for data collection because of confidential business information (CBI)


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Potential problems in preparing IP Sector inventoryEmissions Estimation Methods and Reporting

  • The reporting of industrial process emissions from non-energy use (NEU) of feedstock produced in combination with fuelcombustion under EnergySector due to the difficulty in differentiation and possible double counting of CO2

  • Direct plant-level measurement and reporting of industrial process emissions of CO2 from chemical processes or stage processes in combination with fuel combustion emissions from energy uses of feedstock (e.g. CO2 emissions from CaCO3 decomposition and metallurgical coke oxidation in Solvay process)


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Potential problems in preparing IP Sector inventoryInappropriateness of StoichiometricRatios as EFs

  • Where technology-specific or plant-level data are not available, EF(D) are based on stoichiometric ratios of process reactions.


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Potential problems in preparing IP Sector inventoryLack of Emission Factors (2)

  • Lack of development of plant-level EFs, which leads to the estimation of EFs based on top-down ratios calculated as

    EF = Emissions/Aggregate AD.


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IPCC 1996GL source-category-specific problemsGPG2000 Tier 1 Good Practice Options

Sample Source Category Estimations

  • 2.A.1 Cement Production

  • 2.A.2 Lime Production

  • 2.A.1 Limestone and Dolomite Use

  • 2.C.1 Iron and Steel

    Reference Table 2 IP Handbook


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Other Specific Problems Encountered in the Use ofIPCC 1996GL

Suggested Approaches/Options


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Potential problems in preparing IP Sector inventoryNotation Keys in Reporting Tables 1& 2

  • Inappropriate use and/or limited use of notation keys (NO, NE, NA, IE, NE) in UNFCCC reporting Table 1 and Table 2.


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Completeness and Transparency in Reporting – Use of Notation Keys

NO(not occurring) for activities or processes that do not occur for a particular gas or source/sink category within a country,

NE (not estimated) for existing emissions and removals which have not been estimated,

NA (not applicable) for activities in a given source/sink category which do not result in emissions or removals of a specific gas,

IE (included elsewhere) for emissions and removals estimated but included elsewhere in the inventory (Parties should indicate where the emissions or removals have been included),

C (confidential) for emissions and removals which could lead to the disclosure of confidential information.


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Potential problems in preparing IP Sector inventoryActivity Data Collection and Reporting

  • Production data on large point sources may be available in various national institutions in data sets that are not easily converted to greenhouse gas inventory data

  • Where available, mandatory or voluntary plant-level data are reportedas total emissions without relevant AD and EF


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Potential problems in preparing IP Sector InventoryLack of Emission Factors (1)

  • Mandatory industry reports (e.g. annual environmental reports) provide only emissions estimates without AD and/or EF

  • Lack of IPCC default EFs due to differences in IPCC source and sub-source categories and disaggregation of country-relevant sources


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Potential problems in preparing IP Sector InventoryInstitutional Arrangements

  • National institutions and industry associations collect and present data in formats not appropriate for GHG estimation (because they are normally aggregated in data sets relevant for the purposes for which they were collected)

  • Limited awareness among industry/industry associations about opportunities under the Convention and therefore lack of motivationto develop capacity for reporting GHG inventories


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Potential problems in preparing IP Sector InventoryInstitutional Arrangement

  • Lack of institutional arrangement and clarity over roles and responsibilities of experts carrying out the technical studies

  •  Lack of legal and institutional authority to demand data from industry to carry out the inventories (reporting is basically voluntary)


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Potential problems in preparing IP Sector InventoryInstitutional Arrangement

  • Non-involvement of universities and/or research centres in climate change efforts that could develop into a more sustainable inventory system

  • Lack of mainstreaming of climate change data collection by national statistical services and industry associations

  •  Lack of QA/QC and uncertainty analysis by data collection institutions


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Intuitional arrangement problemsRecommended Capacity-building

  • Establish a national working group of relevant stakeholders for plant-level verification and peer review of the inventory report

  • Organize a capacity-building seminar for all institutions and relevant GHG-contributing industries to disseminate the IP inventory data sets, to inform about the need for QA/QC and plant-specific good practice in developing and reporting AD and EFs in greenhouse gas inventory data sets


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Intuitional Arrangement ProblemsRecommended Capacity-building

  • Adapt IPCC 1996GL and GPG2000 and develop country- specific workbooks documenting methods, AD, EFs to increase transparency and preserve institutional memory

  • In a capacity-building workshop, disseminate information about the opportunities for emission reduction under the Convention and the Financing Mechanisms under the Protocol to encourage industry participation


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Review and Assessment ofActivity Data and Emission Factors

Data Status and Options


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GPG2000 Approach and StepsInventory Quality Improvement and Uncertainty Reduction

QA/QC APPROACH


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