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CGE Training Materials National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. Energy Sector – Fugitive Emissions. Version 2, April 2012. Target Audience and Objectives of the Training Materials.

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Cge training materials national greenhouse gas inventories

CGE Training MaterialsNational Greenhouse Gas Inventories

Energy Sector – Fugitive Emissions

Version 2, April 2012

Consultative Group of Experts (CGE)


Target audience and objectives of the training materials

Target Audience and Objectives of the Training Materials

  • These training materials are suitable for people with beginner to intermediate level knowledge of national greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory development.

  • After having read this Presentation, in combination with the related documentation, the reader should:

    • Have an overview of how emissions inventories are developed for the energy sector (fugitive emissions);

    • Have a general understanding of the methods available, as well as of the main challenges in that particular area;

    • Be able to determine which methods suits their country’s situation best;

    • Know where to find more detailed information on the topic discussed.

  • These training materials have been developed primarily on the basis ofmethodologies developed by the IPCC; hence the reader is always encouraged to refer to the original documents to obtain further detailed information on a particular issue.

Consultative Group of Experts (CGE)

Training Materials for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories


Acronyms

Acronyms

  • IEAInternational Energy Agency

  • ppmvParts per million by volume

  • UNSDUnited Nations Statistics Department

Consultative Group of Experts (CGE)

Training Materials for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories


Outline of this presentation fugitive emissions

Outline of this presentation – Fugitive Emissions

Fugitive emissions

Introduction (slide 3)

Coal mining and handling (slide 5)

Oil and natural gas systems (slide 15)

Data issues (slide 31)

References (slides 14, 33, 34)

Consultative Group of Experts (CGE)

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Training Materials for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories


Introduction

Introduction

Fugitive emissions: the sum of emissions from accidental discharges, equipment leaks, filling losses, flaring, pipeline leaks, storage losses, venting and all other direct emissions except those from fuel use

Mainly methane (CH4)

Entrained carbon dioxide (CO2) can be significant in some cases

Minor nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from flaring.

Consultative Group of Experts (CGE)

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Training Materials for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories


Sources of fugitives emissions

Sources of Fugitives Emissions

Solid fuels (primarily coal)

Mining, handling, processing and storage.

Oil and natural gas systems

Exploration, production, processing, refining, transmission, storage and distribution.

Consultative Group of Experts (CGE)

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Training Materials for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories


Coal mining and handling

Coal Mining and Handling

Release of trapped methane during mining

In-situ methane content of coal can vary widely

Most fugitive emissions occur at the mine

Some residual emissions occur from post-mining handling / processing activities.

Consultative Group of Experts (CGE)

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Training Materials for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories


Cge training materials national greenhouse gas inventories

Consultative Group of Experts (CGE)

Training Materials for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories


Surface vs underground

Surface vs. Underground

Two types of coal mines – surface and underground.

Emissions increase with mine depth:

i.e. higher emissions for underground mines.

Emissions also depend on the gas content of coal:

Some gas may remain in the coal

60–75% gas released during mining activity.

Consultative Group of Experts (CGE)

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Training Materials for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories


Abandoned mines

Abandoned Mines

Emissions may continue after the mines have stopped producing coal.

Typically, emissions decline rapidly once deep mine coal production stops.

In some cases, emissions by the surrounding strata may be significant and continue for years afterwards.

Coal waste or reject piles are minor sources of emissions.

Flooding of mines can prevent emissions.

Consultative Group of Experts (CGE)

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Training Materials for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories


Controlling emissions

Controlling Emissions

Degasification wells:

Gas conservation

Flaring.

Use of catalytic combustors on the outlet of ventilation systems for underground mines.

Consultative Group of Experts (CGE)

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Training Materials for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories


Monitoring and activity data

Monitoring and Activity Data

Methane content of exhausted ventilation air (Tier 3)

Coal production (Tier 1 or 2)

Imports and exports by type of coal:

Post-mining emission, likely to be minor

Information on the depth of each mine (Tier 2).

Consultative Group of Experts (CGE)

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Training Materials for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories


Tier 1 and tier 2

Tier 1 and Tier 2

Tier 1 global average emission factors.

Tier 2 country - or basin-specific emission factors based on actual CH4 content of coal mined.

Source: IPCC good practice guidance, page 2.70.

Consultative Group of Experts (CGE)

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Training Materials for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories


Tier 3 underground mines

Tier 3: Underground Mines

Underground mines generally must have ventilation and degasification systems for safety reasons.

Often there are also degasification wells around the mining area.

Use data to estimate emissions or to develop more specific emission factors.

When methane recovery from degasification wells occurs before mining, emission should be reported in the year the coal was actually extracted.

Consultative Group of Experts (CGE)

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Training Materials for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories


Coal mining data issues

Coal Mining Data Issues…

Initial focus can be on most “gassy” mines for Tier 3 approach, and apply Tier 1 or 2 for other mines.

Tier 3 not likely to be feasible for surface mines or post-mining.

Methane recovered and combusted for energy should be included in fuel combustion emissions.

No inventory method is provided for coal fires.

Significant quantities of CO2 can also be released during mining.

Consultative Group of Experts (CGE)

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Training Materials for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories


Coal mining data issues cont

Coal Mining Data Issues (cont.)

Coal statistics usually include primary (hard coal and lignite) and derived fuels (patent fuel, coke oven coke, gas coke, brown coal briquettes, coke oven gas and blast furnace gas). Peat may also be included.

No information is typically provided on the method of mining (i.e. surface or underground) or the depth of the mines. A conservative approximation is to assume that lignite coal is surface mined and bituminous and anthracite coal is from underground mines.

Some useful unpublished data, including mine depth, are available from IEA upon special request.

Consultative Group of Experts (CGE)

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Training Materials for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories


Coal mining references

Coal Mining References

Coal statistics are available for most countries from:

US Energy Information Administration (EIA)<http://www.eia.gov/>

United Nations Statistics Department (UNSD)

< http://unstats.un.org/unsd/default.htm>

International Energy Agency (IEA)<http://www.iea.org/>.

Consultative Group of Experts (CGE)

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Training Materials for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories


Oil and natural gas systems

Oil and Natural Gas Systems

Equipment leaks

Process venting and flaring

Evaporation losses (i.e. from product storage and handling, particularly where flashing losses occur)

Accidental releases or equipment failures.

Consultative Group of Experts (CGE)

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Training Materials for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories


Cge training materials national greenhouse gas inventories

Consultative Group of Experts (CGE)

Training Materials for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories


Emission rates depend on

Characteristics of the hydrocarbons being produced, processed or handled:

Conventional crude oil

Heavy oil

Crude bitumen

Dry gas

Sour gas (more than 10 ppmv of hydrogen sulphide (H2S))

Associated gas

Equipment numbers, type and age

Industry design, operating and maintenance practices

Local regulatory requirements and enforcement.

Emission Rates Depend On…

i.e.

methane content of fuel and leakiness of equipment

Consultative Group of Experts (CGE)

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Training Materials for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories


Emissions from venting and flaring depend on

Emissions From Venting and Flaring Depend On…

The amount of process activity

Operating practices

On-site utilization opportunities for methane

Economic access to gas markets

Local regulatory requirements and enforcement.

Consultative Group of Experts (CGE)

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Training Materials for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories


Accidental releases

Accidental Releases…

Difficult to predict

Can be a significant contributor

Can include:

Well blowouts

Pipeline breaks

Tanker accidents

Tank explosions

Gas migration to the surface around the outside of wells

Surface casing vent blows

Leakage from abandoned wells.

Consultative Group of Experts (CGE)

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Training Materials for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories


Size of the facility

Size of the Facility

Oil and gas systems tend to include many small facilities.

Exceptions:

Petroleum refineries

Integrated oil sands mining and upgrading operations.

Small facilities are likely to contribute most of the fugitive emissions.

Less information is available for smaller facilities.

Consultative Group of Experts (CGE)

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Training Materials for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories


Oil gas composition

Oil-Gas Composition

Raw natural gas and crude oil contains:

A mixture of hydrocarbons

Various impurities including H2O, N2, argon, H2S and CO2

Impurities are removed by processing, treating or refining.

H2S:

Sour gas if more than 10 ppmv of H2S

Sweet gas if less than 10 ppmv of H2S

The concentration of H2S tends to increase with the depth of the well.

Consultative Group of Experts (CGE)

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Training Materials for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories


Acid gas

Acid Gas

By-product of the sweetening process to remove H2S

May contain large amounts of raw CO2

Regardless of how processed…

Sulphur recovery unit

Flared or vented

…the raw CO2 is released to the atmosphere.

Consultative Group of Experts (CGE)

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Training Materials for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories


Patterns of emissions

Patterns of Emissions

Emissions increase as you go upstream through system.

Emissions decrease with concentration of H2S in the produced oil and gas.

Consultative Group of Experts (CGE)

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Training Materials for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories


Equipment leaks

Equipment Leaks

Tend to be continuous emitters

Low to moderate emission rates

All equipment leaks to some extent

Only a few per cent of the potential sources at a site actually leak sufficiently at any time to be in need of repair or replacement

If less than 2% of the total potential sources leak, the facility is considered well-maintained.

Consultative Group of Experts (CGE)

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Training Materials for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories


Sources of equipment leaks

Sources of Equipment Leaks

Valves

Flanges and other connections

Pumps

Compressors

Pressure relief devices

Process drains

Open-ended valves

Pump and compressor seal system degassing vents

Accumulator vessel vents

Agitator seals

Access door seals.

Consultative Group of Experts (CGE)

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Training Materials for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories


Trends in equipment leaks

Trends in Equipment Leaks

Less leakage as toxic nature of material increases

Less leakage where gas has been odorized (thus less leaking in sour gas sections of systems)

More leakage where equipment is subjected to frequent thermal cycling, vibrations or cryogenic service.

Consultative Group of Experts (CGE)

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Training Materials for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories


Storage losses

Storage Losses

Boiling or flashing losses of methane occur from storage tanks

Occurs at production and processing facilities where hydrocarbon liquid flows directly from a pressure vessel where it has been in contact with natural gas.

Consultative Group of Experts (CGE)

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Training Materials for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories


Methodologies

Methodologies

Tier 3: Requires detailed inventories of equipment, infrastructure and bottom-up emission factors.

Tier 2: Based on a mass balance estimate of the maximum amount of methane that could be emitted:

Only for oil systems

Based on gas-oil ratios.

Tier 1: Uses national oil and gas production data and aggregate emission factors.

Consultative Group of Experts (CGE)

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Training Materials for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories


Fugitive emissions data

Fugitive Emissions Data

Poor quality and incomplete data about venting and flaring is common:

Contact industry representatives for standard practices to split venting and flaring.

Data about equipment leaks at minor facilities is unavailable or incomplete:

Well-site facilities

Field facilities.

Consultative Group of Experts (CGE)

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Training Materials for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories


Fugitive emissions data cont

Fugitive Emissions Data (cont.)

Collecting activity data for fugitive sources is difficult and resource intensive

There are no real shortcuts available.

First step can be to interview experts in industry on common practices and processes…

…have them compare national practices with those of countries with a known emissions profile (e.g. an Annex I country).

Consultative Group of Experts (CGE)

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Training Materials for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories


Venting and flaring data

Venting and Flaring Data

Flared if gas poses an odour, health or safety concern

Otherwise vented

Often inconsistencies in vented and flared volumes reported by companies

Problem with some vented volumes being reported as flared.

Consultative Group of Experts (CGE)

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Training Materials for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories


Oil and gas system data issues

Oil and Gas System Data Issues

International production data are expressed on a net basis (i.e. after shrinkage, losses, reinjection, and venting and flaring).

Crude oil normally includes hydrocarbon liquids from oil wells and lease condensate (separator liquids) recovered at natural gas facilities. May also include synthetic crude oil from oil sands and shale oil.

Infrastructure data is more difficult to obtain than production statistics.

Consultative Group of Experts (CGE)

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Training Materials for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories


Oil and gas system data issues cont

Oil and Gas System Data Issues(cont.)

Information on the numbers and types of major facilities, types of processes used at these facilities, numbers and types of active wells, numbers of wells drilled, and lengths of pipeline are typically only available from national agencies.

Information on minor facilities (e.g. wellhead equipment, pigging stations, field gates and pump stations) may not be available, even from oil companies.

The only infrastructure data potentially required for the Tier 1 method are well counts and lengths of pipeline.

Only facility information is required for the IPCC Tier 3 method.

Consultative Group of Experts (CGE)

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Training Materials for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories


Oil and gas system references

Oil and Gas System References

Other methodology manuals:

American Petroleum Institute (API) <www.api.org>

Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) <www.capp.ca>

Canadian Gas Association (CGA) <www.cga.ca>

Gas Technology Institute (GTI) <www.gastechnology.org>.

Oil and gas statistics:

US Energy Information Administration (EIA) <www.eia.doe.gov/neic/historic/hinternational.htm>

United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD) <http://unstats.un.org/unsd/methods/inter-natlinks/sd_natstat.aspand http://unstats.un.org/unsd/databases.htm>

International Energy Agency (IEA) <http://www.iea.org/stats/index.asp>.

Consultative Group of Experts (CGE)

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Training Materials for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories


Oil and gas system references cont

Oil and Gas System References (cont.)

Oil and Gas Journal<www.ogjresearch.com> includes:

Some infrastructure data (number of wells, gas plant listing, major project announcements)

Worldwide refinery, pipeline and gas processing projects

Historical refinery, pipeline and gas processing projects

Worldwide oil field production survey

Worldwide refining survey

Worldwide gas processing survey

Enhanced oil recovery survey.

Consultative Group of Experts (CGE)

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Training Materials for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories


Nitrogen oxides no x

Nitrogen Oxides (NOx)

Indirect greenhouse gases

Fuel combustion activities are the most significant anthropogenic source of NOx

Energy industries

Mobile sources

Two formation mechanisms:

Fuel NOx is from the nitrogen contained in the fuel itself

Thermal NOx is from nitrogen in the air.

Consultative Group of Experts (CGE)

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Training Materials for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories


Carbon monoxide co

Carbon Monoxide (CO)

Indirect greenhouse gas

Majority of emissions are from motor vehicles, but also from small residential and commercial combustion

Intermediate product of the combustion process.

Consultative Group of Experts (CGE)

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Training Materials for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories


Non methane volatile organic compounds nmvocs

Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compounds (NMVOCs)

Indirect greenhouse gases

Product of incomplete combustion

Mobile sources and residential combustion, especially biomass combustion

Low emissions for large-combustion plants.

Consultative Group of Experts (CGE)

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Training Materials for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories


Sulfur dioxide so 2

Sulfur dioxide (SO2)

Aerosol precursor

May have a cooling effect on climate

Concentration increases with burning of fossil fuels that contain sulphur

Closely related to the sulphur content of fuels.

Consultative Group of Experts (CGE)

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Training Materials for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories


Thank you

Thank you

Consultative Group of Experts (CGE)

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Training Materials for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories


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