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The Americas: Pre-Columbian Empires to Colonies. Ch. 15 and 16. Identify major causes and describe the major effects of European exploration. Causes. Political – Nationalism leads to a desire for overseas colonies. 

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The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

The Americas: Pre-Columbian Empires to Colonies

Ch. 15 and 16


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • Identify major causes and describe the major effects of European exploration


Causes

Causes

  • Political – Nationalism leads to a desire for overseas colonies. 

  • Economic – Industrial Revolution led for a search for new markets and raw materials

  • Social – Advancements in technology lead Europeans to develop racist attitudes as they see they are superior to others;


Effects

Effects

  • Native people lose control of their lands and independence

  • New diseases like smallpox reduce native populations

  • Areas stripped of natural resources

  • Artificial boundaries either combine rival groups or divide kinship groups that continue to create political problems in former colonies

  • Humanitarian efforts improve sanitation and education that leads to growth in life expectancy and literacy

  • Colonial lands equipped with infrastructure to aid in economic growth

  • Products from colonies valued in the international market


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • Why were the Europeans so easily able to conquer the natives in the New World?


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • Disease brought to the continent before the attempt at settlements decimated the people who had little immunity to the European microbes

  • Europeans had guns, which gave them a huge advantage in combat.

  • Europeans made a deliberate effort to occupy more land, and native tribes tended to try to give space to coexist or simply move on in order to avoid the white man.


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • Explain the impact of the Columbian Exchange on the Americas and Europe


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • There were many new animals and plants in the Americas that Europeans had never seen.

  • And, Europeans brought plants and animals to the New World that America had never seen.

  • The people living in the Americas did not have resistance to many of the "germs" brought by the Europeans (measles, smallpox, whooping cough, chicken pox, and influenza)


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • The people living in the Americas did not have resistance to many of the "germs" brought by the Europeans (measles, smallpox, whooping cough, chicken pox, and influenza)

  • The Indians also gave to the Europeansvenereal disease.


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • Explain the impact of the Atlantic slave trade on West Africa and the Americas.


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • Those Africans who raided, took captives, and sold slaves to Europeans profited handsomely from the trade, as did the port cities and the states that coordinated trade with European merchants.

  • The Atlantic slave trade alone deprived African societies of about 16 million individuals.

  • Brought goods to Africa from Europe to trade for slaves, who were then traded for sugar and molasses in the West Indies, which was taken back to Europe for use.


The old regime absolutism and enlightenment

The Old Regime: Absolutism and Enlightenment

Ch. 14 Section 5, Ch. 17


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • Identify major causes and effects of the Scientific Revolution


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • The Scientific Revolution changed the way people thought about the physical world around them.  Scientists began to question traditional beliefs about the workings of the universe. 

  • The basis for the Scientific Revolution was the Scientific Method.  The scientific method uses observation and experimentation to explain theories on the workings of the universe.

  • It removed blind adherence to tradition and religious teachings, and allowed scientists to logically find answers through the use of reason. 


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • Explain the Free Enterprise system and Adam Smith’s role in its development


Free enterprise system

Free Enterprise System

  • An economic system where few restrictions are placed on business activities and ownership.

  • In this system, governments generally have minimal ownership of enterprises in the market place.

  • This system aims for limited restrictions on trade and minimal government intervention.


Adam smith s role

Adam Smith’s Role

  • Described capitalism in his book, The Wealth of Nations.

  • Explained how competition and the division of labor help to guide a free-market economic system based on self-interest.

  • He argued that government should follow a laissez-faire, or “hands off,” policy towards the economy


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • Name characteristics of both absolute and limited monarchy


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • Absolute monarchies are also known as undemocratic monarchies. Within an absolute monarchy, a king or queen wields total power and acts essentially as a dictator. This means that the monarch has the power to make important economic and state-level decisions.

  • Power is gained through heredity or through marriage.

  • Divine right was the claim that an absolute monarch was given his position by some higher power.


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • Limited monarchies are also known as constitutional monarchies. In a limited monarchy, a monarch can reach power through heredity, but one can also be elected.

  • The power a limited monarch actually holds tends to vary. Decision-making power usually is held by parliament or a similar governing body.

  • The idea behind a limited monarchy is to avoid the potential for corruption or an abuse of power that can occur in absolute monarchies.


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • Explain the development of democratic-republican government through the English Civil War, Glorious Revolution , and the Enlightenment


English civil war

English Civil War

  • Started because King Charles I tried to establish absolutism in England and collect taxes without Parliament’s consent. He eventually dissolved Parliament and ruled without it for 11 years.

  • When a rebellion arose in Scotland, Charles called Parliament into session. They continued to disagree and war began. The Roundheads defeated the Cavaliers and King Charles was tried and executed

  • The importance of the English civil war is that it went a long way toward resolving the relationship of the king with the parliament and defined what a democratic state was


Glorious revolution

Glorious Revolution

  • The Glorious revolution was a revolt against then king of England, King James II, as he was trying to use his power to establish a Catholic dynasty and thus undermining the Protestants.

  • By accepting the throne at the invitation of Parliament, William and Mary implicitly recognized the supremacy of Parliament. The revolution established the principal that sovereignty and ultimate power in the state was divided between the monarch and Parliament and that the King and/or Queen ruled only with the consent of the governed.


Enlightenment

Enlightenment

  • Enlightenment was also known as the Age of Reason. Reason was considered to be the best way of learning the truth.

  • Rousseau, Locke and Voltaire studied education, laws, and politics. They published attacks on social injustice, religious superstition, and ignorance. Their ideas led to the American and French Revolutions.

  • Enlightenment was critical to the development of western thought. The ideas of democracy in the US Constitution are directly related to the Enlightenment


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • Identify the impact of political and legal ideas contained in the Magna Carta, Declaration of Independence, and the English Bill of Rights


Magna carta

Magna Carta

  • The Magna Carta is the major source of traditional English respect for individual rights and liberties. It was a contract between the king and the nobles of England.

  • It contained certain important principles which limited the power of the English monarch over his subjects.

  • It implied that monarchs had no right to rule in any way they pleased and were forced to govern according to law


Declaration of independence

Declaration of Independence

  • The declaration of Independence is important because it led America's independence from King George III.

  • It justified the Americans right to revolt against a government that no longer guaranteed them their rights and also stated certain ideals believed to be important for man to have such as liberty and equality.


English bill of rights

English Bill of Rights

  • The English Bill of Rights was a re-statement in statutory form of the Declaration of Right presented by the Convention Parliament to William and Mary in March 1689.

  • The main reason why the Bill of Rights was important is that it controlled the power of kings and queens to make them subject to laws passed by Parliament.


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • Contributions of Enlightenment philosophers


John locke

John Locke

  • Believed that man were born with certain natural rights (Life, Liberty, Property)

  • Government is instituted to make laws that protect these three natural rights.

  • If a government does not properly protect these rights, it can be overthrown.


Thomas hobbes

Thomas Hobbes

  • Believed life is "nasty, brutish, and short.”

  • Fear of violent death is the principal motive that causes people to create a government and surrender their natural rights and to submit to the absolute authority


Voltaire

Voltaire

  • Poked fun at traditional authority in society, government, and the church.

  • Believed in religious tolerance.

  • Believed there should be a separation of church and state


Montesquieu

Montesquieu

  • Argued for a separation of powers in government as a check against tyranny.

  • His book, Spirit of Laws, encouraged the development of a system of checks and balances later in the U.S. Constitution

  • Executive, Legislative, Judicial branches


Rousseau

Rousseau

  • Believed that government and its people formed a social contract

  • The actions of the government should express the “general will” of the people.


The age of democratic revolutions

The Age of Democratic Revolutions

Ch. 18


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • Describe the Enlightenments impact on political revolutions in America and France in the late 18th century


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • Enlightenment ideas contributed to the popular desire for more rights and liberties

  • The American Revolution was based on John Locke’s ideas of the natural born rights of Life, Liberty, and Property

  • The French Revolution was based on John Jaque Rousseau’s idea of a Social Contract between the government and those it governs


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • What were the causes of the American and French Revolutions?


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • Issues of taxation helped spark each revolution

  • In the American Revolution, Americans were being taxed without having any say in levying the tax. They were not represented in Parliament whatsoever

  • In the French Revolution, nobles were asked by the King to give up their tax exemptions during a financial crisis.


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • Explain the impact of Napoleon Bonaparte and the Napoleonic Wars on Europe and Latin America


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • Napoleon created stability in France by establishing the Napoleonic Code, a law code that consolidated such achievements of the Revolution as social equality, religious toleration, and trial by jury

  • Seized a large portion of Europe, introducing the ideas of the French Revolution and ending feudal restrictions and serfdom wherever he conquered

  • Stimulated the growth of nationalism worldwide


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • Identify characteristics of democracy, socialism, and republic


Characteristics of a democracy

Characteristics of a Democracy

  • Citizen Control

  • Majority Rule and Minority Rights

  • Protection of Human Rights

  • Free and Fair Elections

  • Citizen Participation

  • Tolerance and Compromise


Characteristics of socialism

Characteristics of Socialism

  • 1. Government ownership of productive resources:

  • 2. Central Planning

  • 3. Redistribution of income

  • 4. Social welfare rather than private profit

  • 5. Peaceful and democratic revolution:


Characteristics of a republic

Characteristics of a Republic

  • form of government in which a state is ruled by representatives of the citizen body.

  • founded on the idea that sovereignty rests with the people, though who is included and excluded from the category of the people varies.

  • Because citizens do not govern the state themselves but through representatives, republics may also be distinguished from direct democracy, though modern representative democracies are by and large republics.


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • Identify political and legal ideas contained in the Declaration of Independence, U.S. Constitution, and the French Declaration of the Rights of Man


Declaration of independence1

Declaration of Independence

  • Equal Rights - "we hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal.”

  • Unalienable Rights - It declares that all men are "endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness . . . ."


U s constitution

U.S. Constitution

  • The Constitution is considered the supreme law of the land both because of its content and because its authority is derived from the people.

  • The most significant features of the U.S. Constitution are:

    • the establishment of the rule of law,

    • the creation of a federal system with a supreme national government,

    • the separation of governmental powers into three branches that check and balance each other

    • the establishment of a republican form of government.


Declaration of the rights of man

Declaration of the Rights of Man

  • Proclaims that all citizens are to be guaranteed the rights of “liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression.”

  • The Declaration sees law as an “expression of the general will,“ intended to promote this equality of rights and to forbid “only actions harmful to the society.”


The industrial revolution

The Industrial Revolution

Ch. 20


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • Identify the major causes and effects of the industrial revolution (Great Britain)


Causes1

Causes

  • Geography – harbors, rivers, coal. Island nation protected from invasion, well located for Europe other trade areas

  • Transportation/Communication – well developed coastal trade, port towns, powerful navy, newspapers

  • Large Colonial Empire – provided valuable raw materials. Contributed to development of financial and commercial skills


Causes2

Causes

  • Powerful Middle Class – participated in government, promoted free enterprise. Brought together capital, labor, and new industrial inventions.

  • Agricultural Improvements – provided an adequate food supply so that fewer people were needed to farm. Provided workforce for factories.


Effects1

Effects

  • Urbanization – rapid growth of cities as people no longer needed on farms moved to city to find jobs.

  • Factory System – division of labor instead of one person making the whole item.

  • Women workers/Child Labor – access the machines better because of their size, could pay them less than men, easier to manage.

  • Middle Class – increased standard of living due to the riches made from the factories

  • Decreased family life – most time was spent working

  • Overcrowding – cities couldn’t handle the influx of people


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • How did the Industrial Revolution lead to political, economic, and social changes in Europe?


Politically

Politically

  • New laws to reform industrialization

  • Extension of suffrage to larger number of people

  • Growth of nationalism in industrialized nations led to desires for expansion both through war and imperialism

  • Establishment of colonies in Africa and Asia to obtain sources of raw materials and markets for the sale of manufactured goods


Economically

Economically

  • Creation of the factory system that led to mass production of goods

  • Reduction of tariffs to promote trade (Corn Laws, etc.)

  • Spread of free enterprise, as well as responses to free enterprise through socialist and communist philosophies


Socially

Socially

  • Increase in population and life expectancy due to improvements in food production and health care

  • Long work hours, low wages, and dangerous working conditions for industrial workers

  • Class tensions between the upper/middle classes and the working classes

  • Increase in child labor which later led to child labor reform laws

  • Poor housing conditions for workers that result in poor sanitary conditions and health epidemics

  • Urbanization of industrial areas in Europe and the United States

  • Beginnings of labor unions that result in better working and housing conditions for workers


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • Effects of Free Enterprise during the Industrial Revolution


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • The free enterprise system flourished in Great Britain

  • It allowed investors and business owners to put their resources where they had the greatest benefit for the economy

  • What should be produced? How should it be produced? Who should get it? All answered by supply and demand


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • How did Adam Smith’s economic contributions influence the Industrial Revolution?


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • Division of labor – specialization in a particular step of the production process, leads to efficiency

  • Law of Supply and Demand – determine prices and production level

  • Invisible Hand – guides individual actions so that they actually work for the common good

  • Laissez-faire – Hands off approach by the government.


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • Identify the historical origins and characteristics of communism, including the influence of Karl Marx


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • Developed by Karl Marx as a more extreme form of socialism. He and Engels wrote Communist Manifesto in which they described a form of socialism in which there was no wage labor or private ownership of land or capital.

  • Communism as a classless society

  • Proletariat (working class) should replace the ruling bourgeoisie; class conflict and revolutionary struggle necessary for a proletarian victory and communist society

  • Decisions on what should be produced made on the best interests of collective society


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • Contributions of scientists/inventors


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • Marie Curie (1867-1934) – proved that radioactivity, when properly applied, was an effective treatment of some diseases.

  • Thomas Edison (1847-1931) – one of the greatest inventors of all time, received more than 1,300 patents for a range of items including the automatic telegraph machine, the phonograph, and improvements to the light bulb, a modernized telephone, and motion picture equipment

  • Albert Einstein (1879-1955) – one of the most well-known and visionary physicists in the history of science, published article on the Theory of Relativity, and his theories were critical to the development of the atomic bomb

  • Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) – French chemist discovered that heat could kill bacteria; He applied the process of heating liquids to kill bacteria to other products including milk. The process is known as “pasteurization.”

  • James Watt (1736-1819) – created a steam engine which worked faster and more efficiently than earlier engines.


Imperialism europe reaches out

Imperialism: Europe Reaches Out

Ch. 25


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • Identify the major causes and describe the major effects of European Imperialism


Causes3

Causes

  • Technology – steamships, rifles, telegraphs, better medicines all allowed deeper penetration into Africa, Asia, and the Pacific nations for the first time

  • Economic Motives – European industries needed raw materials to keep their factories busy as well as needing new markets in which to sell their manufactured goods


Causes4

Causes

  • Political Motives – Acquiring colonies were used to demonstrate power. When one country obtained a colony, others thought they needed one to keep up

  • Social Motives – Europeans believed in Social Darwinism, that they were superior than the darker people. White man’s burden


Effects2

Effects

  • Political – divided Africa into political boundaries that contained rival ethnic groups

  • Economically – brought new technologies to Africa but siphoned off the vast resources for European advantage

  • Socially – many wars resulted as the feeling of nationalism spread, resulting in a great loss of life of African peoples.


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • Analyze the influence of the opening of the Suez Canal


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • It shortened the distance from Europe to Africa

  • Great Britain would take control of Egypt and control of the canal to protect its interests in colonial Africa


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • What is Social Darwinism and its effect on Imperialism


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • The feeling that European culture was superior to the culture of dark skinned people and that they had the duty to spread their culture and religion to those areas.

  • White Man’s Burden


Wwi and the russian revolution

WWI and the Russian Revolution

Ch. 27, Ch. 28


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • Identify the major causes of WWI, both MAIN and immediate causes


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

MAIN

  • Militarism –  Increasing nationalism led to a European arms race

  • Alliance System – Alliances between the great powers of Europe

    • Triple Entente:  Great Britain, France, and Russia

    • Triple Alliance:  Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

MAIN

  • Imperialism - European nations compete for colonies in Africa and Asia.  Distrust grows among rivals.

  • Nationalism – Competition for industrial dominance develops between Great Britain and Germany. Territorial disputes promote rivalry between France and Germany. Austria-Hungary and Russia compete for dominance of the Balkan Peninsula


Immediate cause

Immediate Cause

  • Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary by a Serbian nationalist

  • Led Austria Hungary to declare war on Serbia, resulting in the alliances to kick in


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • Identify the impact of World War I on political, economic, and social systems.


Political impact

Political Impact

  • Sole responsibility of starting World War I placed on Germany

  • Loss of German territory in Europe

  • German colonies in Africa and the Pacific were declared mandates administered by the League of Nations

  • Creation of the League of Nations

  • Limits on the size of German army

  • Germany forbidden to have an air force or to purchase/build submarines


Economic impact

Economic Impact

  • Germany prohibited from importing or manufacturing war materials and weapons

  • Germany forced to pay over $30 billion in war reparations over 30 years

  • Severe inflation and economic disaster affect Germany after the war since large amounts of paper money printed to pay off war debts


Social impact

Social Impact

  • Total war – belligerents use all available resources against their enemies

    • Mobilization of large numbers of soldiers that results in their removal from production jobs

    • Food rationing, use of propaganda to rally behind the war

    • Changes in government policy to address wartime economics

  • Trench warfare -little gains in land for each side resulting in high casualties for both sides

    • Modern military technology – airplanes, poison gas, machine guns, armored tanks, larger artillery

    • 8.5 million soldiers killed, 21 million soldiers wounded; countless civilian deaths due to starvation, disease, and slaughter


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • Explain the political impact of Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • End to secret treaties

  • Free trade

  • Freedom of the seas

  • Reduced national armies and navies

  • Adjustment of colonial claims

  • Self-determination for new nations in Europe:  Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Austria, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Turkey

  • General association of nations that would protect each other


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • Political and economic impact of the Treaty of Versailles


Economic

Economic

  • Germany prohibited from importing or manufacturing war materials and weapons

  • Article 231 (“War Guilt Clause”):  Germany forced to pay over $30 billion in war reparations over 30 years

  • Severe inflation and economic disaster affect Germany after the war since large amounts of paper money printed to pay off war debts

  • United States implements the Dawes Plan in 1924 to loan $200 million to strengthen the German economy and implement a more realistic schedule of reparations

  • United States rejects Treaty of Versailles and signs a separate peace with Germany.


Political

Political

  • Sole responsibility of starting World War I placed on Germany Loss of German territory in Europe and extension of French border to Rhine River

  • German colonies in Africa and the Pacific were declared mandates administered by the League of Nations

  • Creation of the League of Nations including the five allied powers and 32 neutral nations; Germany and Russia excluded

  • Limits on the size of German army

  • Germany forbidden to have an air force or to purchase/build submarines


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • Identify the causes of the Russian (Bolshevik) Revolution


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • Widespread discontent among all classes of Russian society

  • Agitation from revolutionaries

  • Weak leadership of Czar Nicholas II

  • Heavy Russian losses in World War I

  • Strikes and riots including the protest riot in March 1917 over food and fuel shortages that leads to the abdication of the czar


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • How did the Russian Revolution impact Russia’s participation in World War I?


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • When Lenin seizes power in November 1917, he offers Germany a truce

  • Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (1918) ends Russia’s participation in World War I and results in the losses of the Baltic States, Finland, and Poland that emerge as independent nations after the Treaty of Versailles is signed

  • War threat on the Eastern Front is eliminated for Germany, which moves its forces to the Western Front and mounts one last unsuccessful attempt to overrun France


The great depression and world war ii

The Great Depression and World War II

Ch. 30 and 31


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • Identify the major causes of World War II, including the weaknesses of the League of Nations.


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • German invasion of Poland on September 1, 1939, leads to Great Britain and France’s declarations of war on Germany

  • German invasion of the Soviet Union (1941-1943) also known as Operation Barbarossa

  • The Holocaust – Genocide of over 6 million Jews and other groups throughout Europe considered by Germany to be inferior.  Known as “The Final Solution” and resulted in the extermination of these people in death camps.

  • Japanese imperialism – Plans for a Pacific empire that included China that would allow Japan to solve its economic problems through the provision of raw materials and markets for its goods as well as providing more room for its growing population.


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • What were the causes of the Great Depression/


Political1

Political

  • Impact of World War I – United States emerged as a major creditor and financier of post-War restoration. Germany was burdened with massive war reparations. Britain and France needed to rebuild. US banks were more than willing to loan money. However, once US banks began failing ... the banks not only stopped making loans, they wanted their money back. This put pressure on European economies, which had not fully recovered from WWI, contributing to the global economic downturn.

  • Protectionism – Series of tariffs passed by the U.S. Congress between 1913 and 1930 to protect American business against European competition; Smoot-Hawley Tariff of 1930 led to 66% decline in global trade between 1930 and 1934.


Economic1

Economic

  • Stock Market Crash of 1929 - $30 billion loss in four days

  • Bank failures resulting from farmers’ inability to pay back loans

  • Overproduction of business and farm goods in the United States

  • Uneven distribution of wealth in the United States

  • Lessened demand for consumer goods


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • Describe the emergence and characteristics of totalitarianism and fascism


Emergence of totalitarianism

Emergence of Totalitarianism

  • Emergence

    • Joseph Stalin – Soviet Union (1924)

    • Benito Mussolini – Italy (1922)

    • Adolf Hitler – Germany (1933)

    • Mao Zedong – China (1949)

    • Kim Il Jung – North Korea (1948)


Characteristics of totalitarianism

Characteristics of Totalitarianism

  • Dictatorship and absolute rule

  • Dynamic leader who unites people towards a common goal and expects unconditional loyalty and uncritical support

  • Ideology glorifies the aims of the state and justifies government actions

  • State control over all aspects of society including business, religion, family life, education, and the arts

  • State control over the individual including denial of all civil liberties

  • Dependence on mass technology including mass communication to spread propaganda and advanced military weapons

  • Organized violence that uses force such as police terror (Stalin’s Great Purge) and targeting of groups such as national minorities (Jews in Germany) and political opponents


Emergence of fascism

Emergence of Fascism

  • Italy – 1922 with rise of power of Benito Mussolini (“Il Duce”)

    • Italy disappointed in not getting large territorial gains in the 1919 Paris Peace Conference

    • Rising inflation and unemployment led to social unrest

    • Italian upper and middle class feared a communist revolution as in Russia and wanted a strong leader

    • Industrial leaders fear a workers’ revolt

    • Italian democratic government unable to resolve these issues

    • Mussolini and the Black Shirts march on Rome and demand King Victor Emmanuel III to put him in charge of the government

  • Fascism spreads to Germany (Hitler) and Spain (Franco) in the 1930s


Characteristics of fascism

Characteristics of Fascism

  • No clearly defined theory or program

  • Sense of extreme nationalism

  • Strict obedience to national authoritarian leader

  • Belief that nations had to struggle through war – peaceful nations would be conquered

  • Specific uniforms and salutes

  • Mass rallies to spread propaganda

  • Existence of only the leader’s political party

  • No individual rights

  • The state was supreme

  • Focus on national instead of international movements

  • Society had a stratified class system where each level had a specific place and function


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • Roles of FDR and Churchill before and during WWII


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • Franklin Roosevelt (1882-1945) – President of the United States

  • Winston Churchill (1874-1964) – Prime Minister of Great Britain 

  • Leaders of the Allied Powers; Yalta Conference in 1945 to determine outcome of Europe after World War II


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • How did Joseph Stalin attempt to modernize and control the USSR?


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • State control over all aspects of society including business, religion, family life, education, and the arts

  • State control over the individual including denial of all civil liberties

  • Dependence on mass technology including mass communication to spread propaganda and advanced military weapons

  • Organized violence that uses force such as police terror (Stalin’s Great Purge) and targeting of groups such as national minorities (Jews in Germany) and political opponents


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • What is the United Nations?


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization established on 24 October 1945 to promote international co-operation.

  • A replacement for the ineffective League of Nations, the organization was created following WWII to prevent another such conflict.


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • Explain the US policy of containment following WWII


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • New U.S. President Harry Truman adopts foreign policy of containment that blocks communism and prevents its spread

  • Truman Doctrine (1947) – U.S. aid to Turkey and Greece to prevent spread of Communism to these two countries

  • Marshall Plan (1947) – aid to Western Europe for economic recovery and prevention of spread of Communism to this region; spurred by Soviet takeover of Czechoslovakia

  • Berlin Airlift (1948) – after Allied withdrawal from Germany, Soviets close off Berlin to the West; Allies drop food and medicine through an airlift that leads to the removal of the Soviet blockade of this city


Decolonization and the cold war

Decolonization and the Cold War

Ch. 31-5, 32, 33


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • What were the causes of the Cold War and how did the end of WWII contribute to it?


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • Yalta Conference (1945) Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin address dealing with interim governments at the end of the war in Europe

  • New U.S. President Harry Truman adopts foreign policy of containment that block Communism and prevents its spread


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • What was the Iron Curtain?


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • Eastern European nations would have communist-friendly governments

  • Soviet satellite nations with Communist governments installed in Poland, Czechoslovakia, Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary, and Romania Germany divided into two sections with East Germany under Communist control

  • Churchill referred to this division between east and west:  “an iron curtain has descended across the continent.”


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • What factors contributed to Communism in China and how did it differ from Soviet Communism?


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • Extreme devastation of Chinese cities and economy by Japanese invasion during World War II

  • Resumption of civil war between Mao Zedong’s Communist Red Army and Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-shek) Nationalist forces at the end of World War II

  • Soviet Union supports Red Army and United States supports the Nationalist Army

  • Mao defeats Nationalists in 1949 and establishes a Communist government on the mainland while the Nationalists retreat to Taiwan; Communists take over Tibet in 1950


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • Differences from Soviet communism:

    • Mao’s policies focused mainly on agrarian workers and did not place the same emphasis on industrialism as Soviet communism did

    • Great Leap Forward (1958-1961):  rural peasants placed in large collective farms called communes where production was controlled by the state; unsuccessful as crops failed and poor planning and inefficient industry hampered growth


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • Why did command economies collapse in competition with free market economies at the end of the 20th century?


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • Inefficient central planning system where party officials told farm and factory managers how much to produce, what wages to pay, and what prices to charge that led to little motive for efficiency

  • Gorbachev’s reforms in the Soviet Union

    • Glasnost – openness that led to greater discussion of issues by the Soviet public including new ideas for economic reform and economic problems like the long lines to buy limited supplies of food and other products

    • Perestroika – economic restructuring where local managers gain greater authority over their farms and factories and allow for opening of small private businesses

    • Democratization process that allowed more political freedom for voters, who could choose candidates supporting economic reform


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • Solidarity legalized as a workers’ union in Poland

  • Private enterprise and a small stock market established in Hungary

  • Yeltsin implements “shock therapy” in Russia’s economy that eliminated government intervention in the economy, reduced trade barriers, removed price controls, and eliminated subsidies to state-run industries

  • Shock therapy also applied to economies in Poland and Czechoslovakia


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • How did Gorbachev’s glasnost and perestroika policies impact the fall of Soviet communism?


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • Glasnost – openness that led to greater discussion of issues by the Soviet public including new ideas for economic reform and economic problems like the long lines to buy limited supplies of food and other products

  • Perestroika – economic restructuring where local managers gain greater authority over their farms and factories and allow for opening of small private businesses

  • Democratization process that allowed more political freedom for voters, who could choose candidates supporting economic reform


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • Describe the resistance movements led by Mohandas Gandhi, Desmond Tutu, and Nelson Mandela.


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • Nelson Mandela (1918- ) –anti-apartheid activist whose actions after his release from prison led to the establishment of a multi-ethnic South African government that he headed as president

  • Mohandas Gandhi (1869-1948):  led Indians to independence from Great Britain through nonviolent resistance


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • Korean War (1950-53) that leaves a divided Korean peninsula – North Korea (Communist) and South Korea (democracy)

  • Development and testing of hydrogen bomb by U.S.  (1952) followed by Soviet H-Bomb (1953)

  • Vietnam War (1953-75) that results in Communist-backed North Vietnam overtaking U.S.-backed South Vietnam

  • Launching of Sputnik satellite by Soviet Union (1957)

  • Cuban revolution led by Fidel Castro that leads to Communist takeover of that country (1959-60)

  • U-2 spy plane manned by Francis Gary Powers shot down by Soviet Union (1960)

  • Berlin Wall divides the city into Communist East Berlin and free West Berlin (1961)

  • Cuban Missile Crisis between U.S. and U.S.S.R. that almost leads to nuclear war (1962


The americas pre columbian empires to colonies

  • Summarize the rise of independence movements in South Asia and Africa


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