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Spanish Colonization of the Americas







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Spanish Colonization of the Americas. Gold, Glory & God. Technology. Caravels Lateen Sails Astrolabe improvements Compass. Portuguese. Colonize the east primarily Also the Canaries and Madeiras Sugarcane – plantation economy African Slave Trade Later taken over by the Spanish.
Spanish Colonization of the Americas

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Slide 1

Spanish Colonization of the Americas

Slide 2

Gold, Glory & God

Slide 3

Technology

  • Caravels

  • Lateen Sails

  • Astrolabe improvements

  • Compass

Slide 4

Portuguese

  • Colonize the east primarily

  • Also the Canaries and Madeiras

    • Sugarcane – plantation economy

    • African Slave Trade

    • Later taken over by the Spanish

Slide 5

Three Commonalities Between All Nations

  • Mercantilism (see map)

    • Intra-colonial trading system

  • The Columbian Exchange

    • Disease killed 90%

  • African Slave Trade (see map)

Slide 6

Christopher Columbus – (1492 – 1504)

  • Thought world was smaller than most believed – He was wrong

  • Queen Isabella supported him

  • Took four voyages

  • Reason to believe he knew he reached the new world

Slide 7

Treaty of Tordesillas - 1494

Slide 8

Hernan Cortes & Francisco Pizarro

Conquers Aztecs – 1521

Established estates in New World

Dies a wealthy man

Conquers Incas - 1532

How was Cortes able to conquer so many with so few?

Slide 9

Economics of Spanish Colonies

  • Established plantations on W. Indian islands

  • Silver & gold mines of Central and South America

  • Both required manual labor

Slide 10

Pirates

  • Spanish transported lots of wealth

  • Opened the door to privateers and eventually pirates

  • Channel between Florida and the Bahamas was the best place to go after Spanish merchant ships

    • Spanish founded St. Augustine – 1565

    • Oldest city in US

Slide 11

Labor System - Encomienda

  • Encomienda - The expedition commander would give trusteeship over parcels of land and that land’s inhabitants to his conquistadores.

    • Encomiendero collected taxes from natives and force them to work

    • Encomiendero would provide protection and Catholicism to the natives.

    • Used on mainland

Slide 12

African Slavery

  • Used primarily on the islands of the Caribbean

    • Sugar, coffee, tobacco plantations

    • Native had died from disease

Slide 13

Colonial Government under Crown Control

  • Conquistador autonomy concerned the Spanish crown

    • Created two provinces:

      • In Mexico - New Spain,

      • In Peru - New Castile

    • Each governed by a viceroy. Voice of the king

  • All important decisions on colonial management came from Spain.

Slide 14

Caste System

  • Peninsulars

  • Creoles

  • Mestizo

  • Mulattoes

Slide 15

Bartolome de las Casas

  • Catholic Priest

  • Came to the Americas shortly after Columbus

  • Critic of the American conquest & encomienda system

  • Fought to preserve rights of Native Americans

Slide 16

DeSoto & Coronado

  • De Soto – unleashed violence through SE and Florida

  • Coronado – Unleashed violence through the Great Plains

    • The City of Cibola

Slide 17

Spanish in North America

  • Why did they not conquer periphery Indians (North America)?

Slide 18

New Mexico Colony

  • Santa Fe (1608) was founded as a religious colony

    • In the sticks

    • Little respect for Natives

  • Pueblo Indians were willing to add Christian beliefs

Slide 19

Pope’s Rebellion - 1680

  • Pueblo Indians resent the Spanish

    • infringing on Pueblo culture

    • Disrespectful

    • Making natives second class citizens

  • Pueblos attack New Mexico settlements

    • Kill priests & settlers

    • Burned settlements

  • Set Spanish back in that area

Slide 20

Fall of the Spanish colonial Empire

  • Defeat of the Armada 1588

  • Centralized Control

  • Increase in wealth caused inflation

  • Exploitation colony

  • Conversion efforts drew focus away from economic gains.


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