Engine intro basic induction
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Engine Intro & Basic Induction. Presented by: Will Miller. Engine Types. Turbine Engine Found in transport Category aircraft Relatively costly but extremely powerful Reciprocating Engine Found in general aviation Economical, but still very reliable . Cessna Engine. Horizontally Opposed

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Engine Intro & Basic Induction

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Engine intro basic induction

Engine Intro & Basic Induction

Presented by:

Will Miller


Engine types

Engine Types

  • Turbine Engine

    • Found in transport Category aircraft

    • Relatively costly but extremely powerful

  • Reciprocating Engine

    • Found in general aviation

    • Economical, but still very reliable


Cessna engine

Cessna Engine

  • Horizontally Opposed

  • Direct Drive

  • Air Cooled

  • 4 cylinder


Engine operation

Engine Operation

  • What are the four strokes of an engine?


Four strokes on an engine

Four Strokes on an Engine


Intake

Intake

  • When the piston moves away form the cylinder head

  • Intake valve opens

  • Fuel/Air mixture is drawn into the combustion chamber


Compression

Compression

  • Piston moves back toward the cylinder head

  • Intake valve closes

  • Fuel/Air Mixture is compressed


Power

Power

  • Compression nearly complete

  • Spark plugs fire

  • Compressed mixture is ignited

  • Rapidly expanding gases drive the piston, providing the power that rotates the crankshaft


Exhaust

Exhaust

  • Expels the burned gases through the exhaust valve, which opens at the end of the power stroke


Induction system

Induction System

  • Brings outside air into the engine, mixes it with fuel in the proper proportion and deliver it to the cylinders where combustion occurs.

  • Throttle

  • Mixture

  • Intake Port


Throttle

Throttle

  • Controls Engine Speed

  • Regulates the amount of fuel/air mixture that flows into the cylinders


Mixture

Mixture

  • Controls the fuel/air ratio


Intake port

Intake Port

  • Where outside air enters the induction system

  • Normally contains an air filter to keep out dust and FOD


Carburetor

Carburetor

  • Mixes the incoming air with fuel and delivers it to the combustion chamber


Carburetor1

Carburetor

  • Air passes through a venturi, increases velocity and decreases pressure

  • Fuel enters from a float chamber where it is maintained at a nearly constant level by a float device

  • Discharge nozzle is located in an area of low pressure created by the venturi

  • Fuel is forced through the discharge nozzel by the higher atmospheric pressure in the float chamber


Overly rich mixture

Overly Rich Mixture

  • What does it mean to have a “Rich” mixture?

    • As altitude increases, the mixture will get progressively richer due to the decrease in air density.

    • Can result in engine roughness: excessive carbon buildup on the spark plug will cause them to foul.

    • High elevation airports, climb or cruise at high elevation


Overly lean mixture

Overly Lean Mixture

  • What does it mean to have a “Lean” mixture?

    • May result in high engine temperatures causing excessive wear or even failure

    • Enrichen Mixture on descents from high altitudes

    • Watch engine temperature


Carburetor ice

Carburetor Ice

  • Occurs due to the effect of fuel vaporization and decreasing pressure in the venturi which causes a sharp temperature drop in the carburetor

  • If water vapor in the air condenses when the carburetor temperature is at or below freezing, ice may form on internal surfaces of the carburetor, including the throttle valve

  • Likely below 21C (70F), humidity above 80%


Carburetor ice1

Carburetor Ice


Carburetor ice2

Carburetor Ice


Carburetor ice indications

Carburetor Ice Indications

  • Why can Carburetor Ice be dangerous?

  • What are some indications of Carb Ice?

    • Drop in engine RPM

    • Engine Roughness

    • Fuel starvation

  • What can we do to get rid of carburetor ice or even prevent it from happening in the first place?

    • Carburetor Heat


Carburetor heat

Carburetor Heat

  • Carburetor ice is especially dangerous when operating at low power settings, may go unnoticed until power is added

  • How does carburetor heat work?

    • Carburetor heat routes air across a heat source before it enters the carburetor

  • How will carb heat affect engine performance?

    • Causes a slight decrease in engine power (heated air is less dense)

    • If ice is present, there will be a decrease followed by a gradual increase in rpm


Carburetor heat1

Carburetor Heat


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