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Internal Combustion Engine Induction Tuning






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Internal Combustion Engine Induction Tuning. ME 468 Engine Design Professor Richard Hathaway Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering. Port Sizing Considerations. Swept and Displaced Volumes. Inlet Port. Swept Volume/cylinder:. s x A p.
Internal Combustion Engine Induction Tuning

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Internal combustion engine induction tuning l.jpgSlide 1

Internal Combustion EngineInduction Tuning

ME 468 Engine Design

Professor Richard Hathaway

Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering

Port sizing considerations l.jpgSlide 2

Port Sizing Considerations

Swept and displaced volumes l.jpgSlide 3

Swept and Displaced Volumes

Inlet Port

  • Swept Volume/cylinder:

s x Ap

Vs = swept volume dB = bore diameter s = stroke

s

Note: In valve design the Volume which flows into the cylinder must equal the volume which flows through the inlet port. The velocity past the valve must then be considerably greater than the velocity in the cylinder.

Port sizing and mach index z l.jpgSlide 4

Port Sizing and Mach Index (Z)

  • Mach Index is the ratio of the velocity of the gases flow area to the speed of sound

Db = cylinder bore dia.

Dp = port dia.

n = number of ports

For mean values:

Port sizing and mach index z5 l.jpgSlide 5

Port Sizing and Mach Index (Z)

  • For instantaneous relationships:

s = length of stroke L = length of connecting rod

θ = crank position Cd = flow coefficient

Port sizing and mach index z6 l.jpgSlide 6

Port Sizing and Mach Index (Z)

  • Speed of Sound:

    • Temperature and F/A ratio dependant

    • At Standard Temperature and Pressure

c = 1100 ft/sec

c = 340 m/sec

Port sizing and mach index z7 l.jpgSlide 7

Port Sizing and Mach Index (Z)

  • Modern performance engines will use multiple inlet and exhaust valves per cylinder.

  • Many are using multiple intake runners per cylinder to improve cylinder filling over a broader range of RPM.

    • A single runner is used at lower RPM while a second runner will be opened at higher RPM.

    • The second and the combined each have their own tuning peak.

Inlet air density and performance l.jpgSlide 8

Inlet Air Density and Performance

Inlet air density l.jpgSlide 9

Inlet air density

  • Law of Partial Pressures:

  • If each is considered as a perfect gas

Inlet air density10 l.jpgSlide 10

Inlet air density

  • Inlet Pressures and Densities:

ma = 29 mw = 18 mgas = 113

Fc = chemically correct mix

Fi = % vaporized (Fc)

Inlet air density11 l.jpgSlide 11

Inlet air density

  • Inlet Pressures and Densities:

  • From Ideal Gas Law

R = 1545 ft-lb/(lbm-mole-oR)

Inlet air density12 l.jpgSlide 12

Inlet air density

  • Inlet Densities:

for P in psia and T in oR

Inlet air density13 l.jpgSlide 13

Inlet air density

  • Example Problem:

    • Find the change in indicated power when changing from Gasoline to Natural Gas fuels

      Assume: Pi = 14.0 psia Ti = 100oF

       = 1.2 => 20 % Rich

      h = 0.02 lbm/lbm air

GASOLINE:

F/A = 1.2 x 1/14.8 = 0.081 lbfuel/lbair

Assume fuel is 40% vaporized

(Use fuel distilation curves)

Inlet air density14 l.jpgSlide 14

Inlet air density

Gasoline:

Natural gas:

F/A = 1.2 x 1/17.2 = 0.0697 lbfuel/lbair

Fuel is a gaseous fuel and is 100% vaporized

Inlet air density15 l.jpgSlide 15

Inlet air density

  • NATURAL GAS:

Inlet air density16 l.jpgSlide 16

Inlet air density

  • NATURAL GAS:

  • INDICATED POWER RATIO:

Inlet air density17 l.jpgSlide 17

Inlet air density

  • Indicated power ratio:

The above indicates an approximate 10% loss in power output by changing to the gaseous fuel.

Inlet air density18 l.jpgSlide 18

Inlet air density

Note: Gasoline performance decreases more rapidly with increasing temperature.

Acoustic modeling l.jpgSlide 19

ACOUSTIC MODELING

Induction system comparisons l.jpgSlide 20

Induction System Comparisons

Courtesy: Dan Butts, Derek Harris, Chris Brockman, Tiffany Dickinson

Acoustic modeling21 l.jpgSlide 21

Acoustic Modeling

  • Closed Ended Organ Pipe:

Acoustic modeling22 l.jpgSlide 22

Acoustic Modeling

  • Closed Ended Organ Pipe:

Acoustic modeling23 l.jpgSlide 23

Acoustic Modeling

Helmholtz Resonator:

Build considerations l.jpgSlide 24

Build Considerations

  • Variable Length Runners for RPM matching

  • Materials Selection Criteria:

    • Weight, Fabrication, Surface Finish, Heat Isolation

  • Intake placement

    • Isolate from heat sources (Engine, Exhaust, Radiator, Pavement)

  • Fuel Injector Placement

Courtesy: Dan Butts, Derek Harris, Chris Brockman, Tiffany Dickinson

Acoustic modeling25 l.jpgSlide 25

Acoustic Modeling

Induction System Model

Multiple stack with pressure box l.jpgSlide 26

Multiple Stack with pressure box

Courtesy: Dan Butts, Derek Harris, Chris Brockman, Tiffany Dickinson

Acoustic modeling27 l.jpgSlide 27

Acoustic Modeling

  • For a single degree of freedom system

A1 = Average Area of Runner and PortL1 = LPort + Lrunner

K1 = 77 (English)K1 = 642 (Metric)

C = Speed of Sound

Individual throttle body with plenum l.jpgSlide 28

Individual Throttle Body with Plenum

Courtesy: Dan Butts, Derek Harris, Chris Brockman, Tiffany Dickinson

Helmholtz tuning l.jpgSlide 29

Helmholtz Tuning

  • Writing Clearance Volume in Terms of Compression Ratio:

  • The Primary Volume is considered to be the Cylinder Volume with the Piston at mid-stroke (effective volume).

Helmholtz tuning30 l.jpgSlide 30

Helmholtz Tuning

  • The tuning peak will occur when the natural Helmholtz resonance of the cylinder and runner is about twice the piston frequency.

Volume (V1) = Cylinder Volume

Volume (V2) = Volume in the path from V1 to the Plenum

Using Engelman's electrical analogy we can define the system as a system defined by capacitances and inductances.

Helmholtz tuning31 l.jpgSlide 31

Helmholtz Tuning

  • The EFFECTIVE INDUCTANCE for a pipe with different cross-sections may be defined as the sum of inductances of each section.

The INDUCTANCE RATIO (a) is defined as the ratio of the secondary inductance to the primary inductance.

Helmholtz tuning32 l.jpgSlide 32

Helmholtz Tuning

  • INDUCTANCE RATIO (a)

  • The CAPACITANCE RATIO (b) is defined as the ratio of the Secondary Volume to the Primary Volume.

V2 = Secondary Volume

= Volume of Intake Runners that are ineffective (n-1)

Helmholtz tuning33 l.jpgSlide 33

Helmholtz Tuning

  • Calculate the Separate Inductances:

  • Determine the Inductance Ratio (a)

Helmholtz tuning34 l.jpgSlide 34

Helmholtz Tuning

  • Determine the Capacitance Ratio (b)

  • Determine the Induction system Resonances

(IND)1 = Inductance of the primary length

(IND)1 = Iport + Irunner

Helmholtz tuning35 l.jpgSlide 35

Helmholtz Tuning

  • Determine the Primary Resonance:

  • Determine the Frequency Ratios:

  • Determine the Tuning Peak:

A1 = Average Area of Runner and PortL1 = LPort + Lrunner

K1 = 77 (English)K1 = 642 (Metric)

C = Speed of Sound

Helmholtz tuning36 l.jpgSlide 36

Helmholtz Tuning

  • Intake Tuning Peaks become:

Helmholtz tuning37 l.jpgSlide 37

Helmholtz Tuning

  • A combined equation is possible indicating it’s 2nd order

David visard s rule of thumb equations l.jpgSlide 38

David Visard’s “Rule of thumb” Equations

  • Using Visard's Equation for Runner Length

    • 1. Starting point of 7 inches for 10,000 RPM

    • 2. Add length of 1.7 inches for each 1000 RPM less

Using Visard's Equation for Runner Diameter

The end l.jpgSlide 39

The End

Thank You!


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