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Nutrients. Ch 5 Lesson 2. Six Nutrients. Carbohydrates Protein Fats Vitamins Minerals Water *each nutrient has a unique part in maintaining the normal growth and body function. CARBOHYDRATES. the starches and sugars present in foods body’s preferred source of energy

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Nutrients

Nutrients

Ch 5 Lesson 2


Six nutrients
Six Nutrients

  • Carbohydrates

  • Protein

  • Fats

  • Vitamins

  • Minerals

  • Water

    *each nutrient has a unique part in maintaining the normal growth and body function


Carbohydrates
CARBOHYDRATES

  • the starches and sugars present in foods

  • body’s preferred source of energy

  • 4 calories per gram

  • Two types of carbs

    • Simple- sugars, fructose, dextrose

      • Ex: fruits, cookies, donuts, white bread

    • Complex- Starches

      • Ex: whole grain breads, oats, brown rice


Role of carbohydrates
Role of Carbohydrates

  • body converts carbohydrates into glucose, which is your body’s main source of energy

  • extra glucose gets stored as glycogen in the liver and muscles

    • when you need energy the glycogen is converted back into glucose

    • if you take in more carbohydrates than your body needs or can store, the excess carbs are stored as fat

  • FIBER- an indigestible complex carbohydrate; found in tough, stringy vegetables, fruits, and whole grains

    • Helps move waste through your body

    • Reduce risk of heart disease; 20-30 grams


Protein
Protein

  • nutrient that help build and maintain body cells and tissues; they are made of long chains of amino acids

  • Body manufactures all but 8 of the 20 amino acids

    • Those your body can’t manufacture are essential amino acids

  • Two Types of Protein

    • Complete- contains adequate amounts of all eight essential amino acids

      • Fish, chicken, eggs, milk, cheese

    • Incomplete- lack one or more of the essential amino acids

      • Beans, nuts, peas, whole grains


Role of protein
Role of Protein

Build new cells and tissues; especially during growth periods

Body replaces worn-out cells by making new ones from protein

Can use protein for energy, not main source

4 calories per gram


Fats

  • some fat in the diet is necessary for good health

  • Fats are types of Lipids- a fatty substance that does not dissolve in water

    • Fats provide more than twice the energy of carbs or protein

    • fat=9 calories per gram


Role of fats
Role of Fats

Concentrated form of energy

Transport vitamins A,D,E and K in your blood

Source of linoleic acid- essential fatty acid needed for healthy skin and growth

Help satisfy hunger longer than other foods

No more than 20-30 percent of your daily calorie intake should be fats


Fat cont
Fat (cont)

  • Cholesterol- a waxy lipid like substance that circulates in blood

    • Your body uses the small amount it manufactures to make cell membranes and nerve tissue

    • Excess blood cholesterol is deposited in arteries, including those in your heart which increases risk of heart disease

    • Can reduce risks by eating diets low in saturated fats and cholesterol


Vitamins
Vitamins

  • compounds that help regulate many vital body processes, including the digestion, absorption, and metabolism of other nutrients

  • Two Types of Vitamins

    • Fat Soluble- are absorbed, stored, and transported in fat; body stores these in your fatty tissue, live and kidneys; excess build up can be toxic

    • Water Soluble- dissolve in water and pass easily into the blood during digestion; the body does not store these; you need to replenish them regularly


Minerals
Minerals

  • substances that the body cannot make but that are needed for forming healthy bones, teeth, and for regulating many vital body processes

    • Calcium- builds bones and teeth

    • Phosphorus- gives bones and teeth rigidity; essential in cell metabolism

    • Magnesium- enzyme activator related to carbohydrate metabolism; aids in bone growth

    • Iron- part of the red blood cells’ oxygen and carbon dioxide transport system


Water
Water

  • Vital to every body function!

    • Transports nutrients and carries wastes from your cells

    • Lubricates your joints and mucous membranes

    • Drink 8 cups of water a day to maintain health


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