Epistemology. InterpretivismStress gaining an understanding of individual's perception of the social world. Ontology. ConstructionismSocial world is constructed, is an outcome of the interactions between individuals.Does not exist out there' independent of people.. Relationship to Theory. Quanti
1. Analysing Qualitative Data [email protected]
2. Epistemology Interpretivism
Stress gaining an understanding of individual’s perception of the social world
3. Ontology Constructionism
Social world is constructed, is an outcome of the interactions between individuals.
Does not exist ‘out there’ independent of people.
4. Relationship to Theory Quantitative research - theory drives research question (Deductive)
Qualitative research - theory (can often) be an outcome of social investigation (Inductive)
5. Types of Qualitative Research Ethnography / Participant Observation
Textual / Document analysis
Can use multi-method approach
6. Main steps in Qualitative Research Define research questions
Select site / sample respondents
Use methods / collect data
Analyse data in terms of research questions
Conceptual / theoretical work
Write up findings / conclusions.
7. Reliability / Validity Qualitative research involves different usage of these terms.
Treat their accounts as one of a number of possible representations.
Accounts supported by other techniques
8. Respondent Validation Researcher seeks confirmation / corroboration of his/her account of their findings by showing findings to subjects.
Defensive reactions of subjects
Reluctance of subjects to be critical
Written for social scientists.
9. Triangulation Using more than one method or source of data thus giving more confidence in the reliability / validity of findings.
Form of cross checking
Compare interview material with observation, published material.
10. Qualitative Research Key assumption is that people can attribute meaning to their environment / actions.
Qualitative research seeks to understand /see the world through the eyes of the people they study.
Social world to be interpreted from the perspective of those being studied
11. Critique of Qualitative Research Subjective / Impressionistic
Rely too much on researchers views of what is important
Difficult to replicate
Researcher is the main instrument of data collection
Interpretation of data influenced by subjective leanings of researcher
12. Critique of Qualitative Research Scope of findings is restricted thus difficult to generalise findings
Unstructured interviews / participant observation
Small number of respondents.
13. Critique of Qualitative Research Less codified than Quantitative Research
Lack of strict guidelines about data collection and analysis
Lack of transparency - what did the researcher actually do / how arrive at the conclusions.
14. Contrasts between Qual and Quan Numbers v Words
Point of view of the researcher v point of view of the participants
Researcher is distant v Researcher is close.
In Quan researcher has no or distant relationship with subjects - seen as a good thing.
15. Contrasts between Qual and Quan Theory and concepts tested in Quan research whereas (often) Theory and concepts emerged from the data
Quan is highly structured use of precise concepts and tools of measurement - Qual is unstructured.
16. Contrasts between Qual and Quan Quan want their findings to be generalisable to wider population.
Qual seeks understanding of behaviour, values, beliefs in terms of the context in which research is conducted.
17. Contrasts between Qual and Quan Macro v Micro
Quan often concerned with large-scale social trends
Qual often concerned with small scale aspects of reality.
18. Contrasts between Qual and Quan Behaviour v Meaning
Artificial settings v Natural Settings.
19. Feminism and Qualitative Research Qualitative research is often associated with Feminism
Allows women’s voices to be heard
Women not treated as objects.
Discrimination / Violence against women is uncovered / revealed.
Research / Voices allows political goals of feminism to be realised