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Awareness in Agriculture. Preventing Infectious Diseases. Refresher. Biosecurity is a set of management practices that prevent infectious diseases from being carried into a herd. Old and New Diseases. Old diseases Brucellosis Tuberculosis Johne’s Disease Leukosis

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awareness in agriculture

Awareness in Agriculture

Preventing Infectious Diseases

refresher
Refresher

Biosecurity is a set of

management practices

that prevent infectious

diseases from being

carried into a herd

old and new diseases
Old and New Diseases
  • Old diseases
    • Brucellosis
    • Tuberculosis
    • Johne’s Disease
    • Leukosis
  • New or re-emerging diseases
    • West Nile Virus
    • Hanta Virus
    • Type II Bovine Viral Diarrhea
foreign diseases
Foreign Diseases
  • Foreign animal diseases
    • Foot and Mouth Disease
    • Hog Cholera
    • Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy
    • African Horse Sickness
  • Bioterrorist diseases
    • Anthrax
    • Botulism
    • Plague
slide5
So…
  • To prevent:
    • Death loss
    • Decreased weight gains
    • Reduced milk production
    • Premature culling of

animals

    • Soaring production costs
  • We must prevent these infectious diseases from being carried into our herds.
sounds easy right
Sounds easy, right?
  • Not really
  • Multiple infection routes
    • Fecal/oral

E. coli, Salmonella, BVD, Johne’s

    • Milk and colostrum

Johne’s, BVD, Salmonella, BLV

    • Nasal/saliva

Salmonella, BVD, Mycoplasma

    • In utero

Johne’s, Salmonella, BVD, BLV

disease prevention strategies
Disease Prevention Strategies

Quarantine

Disease Testing

Vaccination

Sanitation

quarantine
Quarantine
  • Keep incoming livestock away from the established herd
    • Food
    • Water
    • Air space
  • How long?
quarantine1
Quarantine
  • Effective against diseases with short incubation periods
    • Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis
    • Bovine Viral Diarrhea
    • Bovine Respiratory Syncitial Virus
  • Three weeks is generally adequate
quarantine2
Quarantine
  • Not an effective strategy for long incubation diseases or diseases with unapparent carriers
    • Tuberculosis
    • Brucellosis
    • Johne’s Disease
    • Leptospirosis
  • Additional biosecurity strategies must be used
disease testing
Disease Testing
  • Test before purchasing
  • Accuracy is uncertain
  • Herd infection vs. individual infection
disease testing1
Disease Testing

Test entire source herd

OR

Purchase from producers participating in

disease certification programs

disease testing2
Disease Testing
  • Consult with your veterinarian
    • Which tests to request
    • Which animals to test
    • How many animals to test
vaccination
Vaccination
  • Should be used with other disease prevention tactics, because vaccination is not:
    • 100 percent effective
    • Available for all diseases
      • Ex. Cryptosporidia
  • Established herd and additions to the herd should be vaccinated
vaccination1
Vaccination
  • Sudden death diseases
    • Clostridia, Anthrax
  • Respiratory diseases
    • IBR, BVD, PI3, BRSV, Pasterurella, etc.
  • Abortion diseases
    • IBR, BVD, Lepto, Vibrio, Trichomonas
  • Diarrhea diseases (scours)
    • Rotavirus, Corona virus, E. coli
vaccination2
Vaccination
  • Many different brands and combinations are available
  • Base your vaccination decisions on:
    • Herd history
    • Management practices
    • Regional problems
    • Cost vs. benefits
    • Risk
    • Veterinary advice
sanitation
Sanitation
  • Keep dogs, cats, birds, rodents and wildlife away from feed supplies.
    • Neospora, Salmonella, Cryptosporidia
  • Do not use manure handling equipment to feed cattle.
    • Johne’s Disease
    • E. coli 0157:H7
    • Salmonella
    • Coccidiosis
sanitation1
Sanitation
  • Protect the herd from exposure to infectious agents
      • Visitor attire
      • CLEAN footbath and brush
  • Practice cleanliness and be aware of environmental changes on a daily basis
newborn calf management
Newborn Calf Management

Keep traffic to a minimum

AND

Work with youngest calves

before working older calves

don t forget colostrum
Don’t Forget Colostrum
  • Disease can be spread to calves through colostrum
  • Selection of colostrum donors
    • Healthy
      • Johne’s, BLV
    • Prolonged residence
    • Properly vaccinated
colostrum management
Colostrum Management
  • Use one dam for one calf
  • Milk dam within one hour after calving if possible, not before calving
  • Clean udder and teats prior to milking
  • Do not store colostrum warm for second feeding
  • Save the excess colostrum frozen in Ziploc bags
  • Thaw colostrum properly to prevent damage to immunoglobulins
take this home
Take this home!
  • Quarantine, disease testing, vaccination, sanitation
  • Most diseases are bought and paid for:
    • Replacements, other herd additions, leased bulls
  • Don’t forget:
    • Outside vehicles, equipment and visitors
  • Don’t overlook the established herd:
    • Separation of animals, order of chores, colostrum
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